Jewish Lords' Witness

Marks of the Beast


One of the concerns that I have had with the Lords' Witnesses (LW) chronology to date is that the world still seems to be some way off from the implementation of the technology expected to be required for the Mark of the Beast and its restriction on the buying and selling of goods and services. This needs to be demonstrably capable of being rolled out on a global basis and I do not believe that the powers that be have that capability just yet.

As I write this introductory paragraph the official TBC website ( has Mark Inauguration Day as 2023 Tammuz 29 (Biblical Lunar Calendar) which equates to 18th/19th July 2023 Gregorian. This is some four weeks or so after the publication date of this paper (20th June 2023). Whilst the world is certainly in a parlous state, I do not think we have yet been subjected to the Great Tribulation. This will be the manifest curtain-raiser for the demons’ implementation of their full and final evil plan upon mankind. The world powers are certainly preparing the groundwork for WW3 and, according to current LW chronology, Mark Compulsion Day will be co-existent with the start of WW3 on 2023 Ab 5 (Biblical Lunar Calendar) which equates to 24th/25th July 2023 Gregorian.

According to the LW Chronology, the start of the time of distress and the consequent initiation of the rapture of the faithful is calculated as 2023 Tammuz 14 (Biblical Lunar Calendar) which equates to 3rd/4th July 2023 Gregorian. 

There is much that needs to happen between now and those near-future events so, I think, there will need to be a swift and further worsening of world affairs to meet our proposed timeframe. Not impossible, subject to the technological challenges, but also not easily achieved I believe. But read on, who knows what we may find out before I finish writing this paper!

Relevant Scriptures on the Mark

Let us survey the key biblical verses on the relevant end-times prophecies. First off, we find the first three verses that cover the Mark in the Book of Revelation:

16 And he causeth all, the small and the great, and the rich and the poor, and the free and the bond, that there be given them a mark on their right hand, or upon their forehead;
17 and that no man should be able to buy or to sell, save he that hath the mark, [even] the name of the beast or the number of his name.
18 Here is wisdom. He that hath understanding, let him count the number of the beast; for it is the number of a man: and his number is Six hundred and sixty and six. (Revelation 13 ASV)

So, in three verses we have the whole profile of those carrying the Mark on their right hands or forehead coupled with the ability to buy and sell, together with some clues as to who or what the beast may be. Then, later in the Book of Revelation, we see the condemnation by God of those willingly taking the mark and worshipping the Beast:

9 And a third angel followed them, saying in a great voice, If anyone worships the beast and its image, and receives a mark on his forehead, or in his hand,
10 he also shall drink of the wine of the anger of God having been mixed undiluted in the cup of His wrath. And he will be tormented by fire and brimstone before the holy angels and before the Lamb.
11 And the smoke of their torment goes up forever and ever. And those worshiping the beast and its image have no rest night and day, even if anyone receives the mark of its name. (Revelation 14 GLT)

1 And I heard a great voice out of the temple saying to the seven angels: Go and pour out the bowls of the anger of God onto the earth.
2 And the first went away and poured out his bowl onto the earth. And it came to be a bad and evil sore onto the men, the ones having the mark of the beast, and the ones worshiping its image. (Revelation 16 GLT)

Following on from this we also find that God’s wrath is, unsurprisingly, aimed at both the beast and the false prophet that between them deceive the unbelievers into taking the mark and worshipping the image of the beast:

20 And the beast was seized, and with this one the false prophet doing signs before it, by which he led astray those having received the mark of the beast, and those worshiping its image. The two were thrown alive into the Lake of Fire burning with brimstone. (Revelation 19 GLT)

Finally, we have the 2NC Kings who had refused the mark and would be ruling with Christ during the thousand years of God’s Kingdom:

4 And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them: and [I saw] the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and which had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received [his] mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years. (Revelation 20 KJV)


History – Emperor Nero

Rightly or wrongly, you can see from the previous scripture that I have interpreted those ruling with Christ for the millennium to be referring to the 2NC Kings and therefore contemplating the Mark of the Beast to come. However, despite all the evil that is yet to come, I cannot envisage that there will be too much literal/physical beheading of 2NC Kings with an axe. Presumably this must be literally referring to the 1NC Saints in the 1st Century. However, as we normally find, the scriptures have symbolic greater meanings meant for current times. In this case, we will then also be referring to the 2NC Kings as well where beheading will, no doubt, take on a more symbolic meaning. Or will it?

As you can tell from the previous paragraph, beheading of the Saints initially struck me as an ancient way of killing dissidents. However, going through much material subsequently, while there seems to have been numerous horrific ways for the Roman Empire/Catholic Church to remove its Christian ‘heretics’, beheading was not one of them, that particular form of execution being reserved for Roman citizens as an ‘honourable’ death: However, what do we read of today but Islamic State (ISIS) members' beheading of Christians:; Those ones dying for their faith may well be 2NC Kings and wasn’t Isis the name of a false Egyptian goddess ( Romans killed Christians in many different ways although beheading seems to have been a minority sport. Ironically, I think this factor demonstrates to me that the Book of Revelation was written for today’s world as well as for ancient times.

There are several different views of the nature and timeline of the Book of Revelation as you can see from the following link: I am not sure my current views fit firmly into any one of the options discussed on that webpage. Basically, I believe that the Book of Revelation contains information on the past and the near future for us at the time of writing this paper. Also, I believe there is a mix of symbolic and literal meaning to the book as well as a mix of the physical and spiritual. Those that consider the Book to be entirely spiritual cannot be correct. Surely the Mark of the Beast either or both in 1st and 21st Century terms must have a physical element to enable the purely physical acts of buying and selling? So, before we head into the prospective technological manifestations of the Mark, it should prove valuable to look at potential implementations of the Mark from the 1st Century. This may help to clarify what is to come.

The first identification of the Beast that I have come across, that holds water, is the Roman Emperor Nero (, who reigned from 54 - 68AD. This timeline would certainly be applicable to a significant number of the 1NC Saints. Q. What would be his mark? A. Gold coinage containing his image. Further identification can be made by considering the number of the man. According to the use of gematria, Nero’s number can be calculated as 666 or 616; the following website has much interesting material on all this: Gematria was, and still is, a well-established mechanism for turning names into numbers and the Lords’ Witnesses have used that same process themselves in other contexts (Numbers of the Beast). Given my ‘Number of the Beast’ paper, the fact that Nero’s identity can be interpreted as either 616 or 666 is a big selling point to me that Nero may well have been the first temporal Beast of Revelation. Actually, let me be rather more precise on this: Nero is the man with the number but the beast is the Roman Empire/Catholic Church (see below).


History – The Roman Catholic Church

John wrote the Book of Revelation around 96AD. This would make the Nero interpretation of the Beast to be not a prophecy but an encoded statement of what was then recent history. But then we can see that Revelation was written to be a prophecy to be manifest in the near future from its writing; consequently, this interpretation may not be correct:

1 A revelation by Jesus Christ, which God gave him, to show his slaves the things that must shortly take place. And he sent forth his angel and presented [it] in signs through him to his slave John, (Revelation 1 NWT)

An alternative thought is that the Beast is not one man but a worldly organisation. Whilst the word 'beast' can have different meanings in different accounts, the use of the word ‘beast’ to mean ‘kingdom’ is certainly well established in the Book of Daniel:

23 Thus he said, The fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces. (Daniel 7 KJV)

To take this one step further, John’s first epistle suggests the antichrist is none other than the Roman Catholic Church:

18 Little children, it is the last hour: and as ye heard that antichrist cometh, even now have there arisen many antichrists; whereby we know that it is the last hour.
19 They went out from us, but they were not of us; for if they had been of us, they would have continued with us: but [they went out], that they might be made manifest that they all are not of us. (1 John 2 ASV)

The LW understanding is that the 1st True Christian Church (TCC1) was corrupted by 1st Century antichrists in their midst and became the Roman Catholic Church (RCC). The true believers continued their worship in what became the 2nd True Christian Church (TCC2) of the Gnostics which was vilified, persecuted and ultimately destroyed by the RCC. The expectation of this ‘schism’ was already evident from the scriptures so this major split between the 1st and 2nd True Christiaan Churches (and between the 3rd and 4th TCCs in the 21st Century) had already been effectively prophesied in the early Corinthian Church:

10 Now I beseech you, brethren, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye all speak the same thing, and [that] there be no divisions among you; but [that] ye be perfectly joined together in the same mind and in the same judgment. (1 Corinthians 1 KJV)

16 However, if any man seems to dispute for some other custom, we have no other, neither do the congregations of God.
17 But, while giving these instructions, I do not commend you because it is, not for the better, but for the worse that you meet together.
18 For first of all, when you come together in a congregation, I hear divisions exist among you; and in some measure I believe it.
19 For there must also be sects among you, that the persons approved may also become manifest among you. (1 Corinthians 11 NWT)

And not only in the Corinthian congregation:

3 If anyone teaches differently, and does not consent to sound words, those of our Lord Jesus Christ and the teaching according to godliness,
4 he has been puffed up, understanding nothing, but [is] sick concerning doubts and arguments, out of which comes envy, strife, evil-speakings, evil suspicions,
5 meddling, of men whose mind has been corrupted and deprived of the truth, supposing gain to be godliness. Withdraw from such [persons]. (1 Timothy 6 GLT)

Now I exhort you, brothers, to keep your eye on those who cause divisions and occasions for stumbling contrary to the teaching that you have learned, and avoid them.
18 For men of that sort are slaves, not of our Lord Christ, but of their own bellies; and by smooth talk and complimentary speech they seduce the hearts of guileless ones. (Romans 16 NWT)

For the interested reader the following links provide more information on the early Gnostic church. It does, however, need to be said that such evidence is somewhat fragmentary. The first item provides a history of the main schisms throughout the Christian Church including the early Gnostic schism: The next item from the LW website relates to the late finding of the non-inspired ‘Gospel of Philip’.  Apart from anything else this would appear to link the 2nd and 4th TCCs as schisms from their false church roots: Point 35 at gives a summary of the LW view of the schism between the 1st and 2nd TCCs. The next link provides further decoded information from the LW website on the Christian Church’s early history:

To cement the fact that the 1st True Christian Church became a false church, the Roman Catholic Church, we can see the relationship between this church and the secular rulership of the Roman Empire. This relationship must clearly mark the church as false. This linkage occurred around 313AD (check out: This was then followed with the Roman Emperor of the time, Constantine, presiding over the first Council of Nicaea in AD 325 with the political aim of uniting the fading Roman Empire. Part of this was to exorcise the Ariane church which did not accept the doctrine of the Trinity and kept to the seventh day Sabbath:, and all these links provide an insight to this history of the church. N.B. For the record the Lords' Witnesses also do not accept the doctrine of The Trinity.

As we saw earlier, we have the scripture regarding the number of the Beast which is also the number of a man:

18 Here is the wisdom! He who is having the understanding, let him count the number of the beast, for the number of a man it is, and its number {is} six hundred and sixty six. (Revelation 13 YLT)

The following website argues that the man represents the head of the beast, in this case the Pope, thereby strengthening the argument that the Roman Empire/Catholic Church is indeed the Beast of Revelation: (NB. I have used this website extensively as a basis for some of my conclusions, but I would want to make the point that there are also many aspects of the thinking used therein that I do not subscribe to. Some of these will likely come to light later in this paper.)

To add further grist to this mill is the argument that ancient Rome is described in the scriptures as Babylon. A highly erudite paper presents a very strong case on this: A key point for me is the destruction of Rome:

18 And cried when they saw the smoke of her burning, saying, What [city is] like unto this great city! (Revelation 18 KJV)

I think that the Visigoths sacking of Rome in 410AD fits the scripture. The irony here is that the Visigoths were Ariane Christians so they preserved the religious buildings but burnt many of the rest. Whilst there have been 6 sackings of Rome, I suspect that this one probably fits the biblical profile if we need to pick on just one. Check out the following website for the full set:

To differentiate the Roman Empire from the Roman Catholic Church we need to see the secular arm as the Beast and the spiritual arm as the harlot of Revelation 17 riding upon the Beast. The following set of verses sums this all up rather well symbolically, I think, without any further explanation from yours truly:

1 And there came one of the seven angels that had the seven bowls, and spake with me, saying, Come hither, I will show thee the judgment of the great harlot that sitteth upon many waters;
2 with whom the kings of the earth committed fornication, and they that dwell in the earth were made drunken with the wine of her fornication.
3 And he carried me away in the Spirit into a wilderness: and I saw a woman sitting upon a scarlet-colored beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns.
4 And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet, and decked with gold and precious stone and pearls, having in her hand a golden cup full of abominations, even the unclean things of her fornication,
6 And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus. And when I saw her, I wondered with a great wonder.
7 And the angel said unto me, Wherefore didst thou wonder? I will tell thee the mystery of the woman, and of the beast that carrieth her, which hath the seven heads and the ten horns. (Revelation 17 ASV)

History - The Sabbath Day (and Other Commandments)

If we look at some additional verses in Revelation 14, we see that worship is the main issue in all this for God:

7 Saying with a loud voice, Fear God, and give glory to him; for the hour of his judgment is come: and worship him that made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and the fountains of waters.

8 And there followed another angel, saying, Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city, because she made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication.
9 And the third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, If any man worship the beast and his image, and receive [his] mark in his forehead, or in his hand, (Revelation 14 KJV)

God already knew that Satan was attempting to take human and angelic worship from Jehovah for himself:

12 How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! [how] art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!
13 For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north:
14 I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High. (Isaiah 14 KJV)

What better vehicle could Satan find than to hijack mankind’s 1st True Christian Church? The same website, that I previously referenced, argues that worship of the Roman Catholic Church is tantamount to (potentially unknowingly?) worshipping Satan thereby robbing God of His true worship (, a view that I would wholeheartedly support. A key sign of this is the Catholic change of the Sabbath day from the 7th to 1st day of the week:

8 Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.
9 Six days shalt thou labor, and do all thy work;
10 but the seventh day is a sabbath unto Jehovah thy God: [in it] thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates:
11 for in six days Jehovah made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore Jehovah blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it. (Exodus 20 ASV)

And just in case of any doubt, God makes a serious issue of the breaking of the Sabbath. It is a capital offense. The keeping of the Sabbath is to be treated as a sign of the perpetual covenant God had with the Children of Israel:

12 And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying,
13 Speak thou also unto the children of Israel, saying, Verily ye shall keep my sabbaths: for it is a sign between me and you throughout your generations; that ye may know that I am Jehovah who sanctifieth you.
14 Ye shall keep the sabbath therefore; for it is holy unto you: every one that profaneth it shall surely be put to death; for whosoever doeth any work therein, that soul shall be cut off from among his people.
15 Six days shall work be done, but on the seventh day is a sabbath of solemn rest, holy to Jehovah: whosoever doeth any work on the sabbath day, he shall surely be put to death.
16 Wherefore the children of Israel shall keep the sabbath, to observe the sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covenant.
17 It is a sign between me and the children of Israel for ever: for in six days Jehovah made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed. (Exodus 31 ASV)

So, the Sabbath Day is highly significant, unchanging and intended to be kept by Christians who are the spiritual children of Israel: 

28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus.
29 And if ye [be] Christ's, then are ye Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise. (Galatians 3 KJV)

15 For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision, but a new creature.
16 And as many as walk according to this rule, peace [be] on them, and mercy, and upon the Israel of God. (Galatians 6 KJV)

Satan thereby engineered a counterfeit of one of God’s unchangeable commandments. This was prophesied by the Prophet Daniel:

25 And he shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High; and he shall think to change the times and the law; and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and half a time. (Daniel 7 ASV)

The Israelites were to keep the ten commandments close to their hands and foreheads through the wearing of the phylacteries as a sign of keeping all of God’s ten commandments, which includes the Sabbath day:

8 And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thine hand, and they shall be as frontlets between thine eyes. (Deuteronomy 6 KJV)

And, just in case anybody forgot this, we are reminded by the Prophet Ezekiel:

20 and hallow my sabbaths; and they shall be a sign between me and you, that ye may know that I am Jehovah your God. (Ezekiel 20 ASV)

Luke confirms that the seventh day Sabbath was kept after Christ’s death:

56 And they returned, and prepared spices and ointments; and rested the sabbath day according to the commandment. (Luke 23 KJV)

And just for good measure, let me yet again demonstrate the pollution of God’s word by most of the Roman Catholic and Protestant translations. Acts 20:7 is one scripture that is used to falsely demonstrate that the Sabbath was changed from the seventh to the first day of the week:

7 And upon the first [day] of the week, when the disciples came together to break bread, Paul preached unto them, ready to depart on the morrow; and continued his speech until midnight. (Acts 20 KJV)

However, if we look at a true translation, we see that ‘the first [day] of the week’ should actually be translated as ‘the first of the sabbaths’ from the Greek word for Sabbaths ‘σαββάτων’ from the actual Greek text:

7 And on the first of the sabbaths, the disciples having been assembled to break bread, being about to depart on the morrow, Paul reasoned to them. And he continued his speech until midnight. (Acts 20 GLT)

 Ἐν δὲ τῇ μιᾷ τῶν σαββάτων συνηγμένων ἡμῶν κλάσαι ἄρτον ὁ Παῦλος διελέγετο αὐτοῖς, μέλλων ἐξιέναι τῇ ἐπαύριον, παρέτεινέν τε τὸν λόγον μέχρι μεσονυκτίου. (Acts 20 WHO)

Jesus Himself criticised the Pharisees for sticking to their man-made traditions rather than God’s commandments. This was clearly a prophetic criticism for the Christian Church that was then yet to come into existence:

5 Then the Pharisees and scribes asked him, Why walk not thy disciples according to the tradition of the elders, but eat bread with unwashen hands?
6 He answered and said unto them, Well hath Esaias prophesied of you hypocrites, as it is written, This people honoureth me with [their] lips, but their heart is far from me.
7 Howbeit in vain do they worship me, teaching [for] doctrines the commandments of men.
8 For laying aside the commandment of God, ye hold the tradition of men, [as] the washing of pots and cups: and many other such like things ye do.
9 And he said unto them, Full well ye reject the commandment of God, that ye may keep your own tradition. (Mark 7 KJV)

James confirms that all of God’s commandments must be kept:

10 For whosoever shall keep the whole law, and yet offend in one [point], he is guilty of all. (James 2 KJV)

So, the Mark of the Beast certainly sounds like the keeping of a counterfeit set of commandments. The Mark could not have been a technological implementation in the early centuries of the RC Church but mention of the forehead or the hand in the context of the Beast’s Mark likely signified the worship of Satan through the church, either through ungodly thinking or actions.

History – The Mark and The Number of The Beast

Let us examine the 1st Century Mark a little further. The wearing of phylacteries was a reminder to the Jews of God’s ten commandments; it was not one of the ten commandments itself so did not need to be a continued practice of Jesus’ followers. As in all other respects, the New Testament continues the physical attributes of the Old Testament with their spiritual equivalents. When John talks about his vision of the 1NC Saints he does not see the wearing of phylacteries but the symbolic description of their faith in and love of The Father and The Son:

4 and they shall see His face, and His name {is} upon their foreheads, (Revelation 22 YLT)

We can therefore argue that Satan’s Mark on the forehead of his followers was the equivalent worshipping of Satan’s deceptive ways. Continuing with the website, that we have already visited, we see that 'Sun-day' worship has its roots in Sun worship with its link to the number 666 of the beast: It is very clear that God abhorred sun worshippers so it is no surprise this has been, and will be the final, battleground between the forces of good and evil:

2 If there be found in the midst of thee, within any of thy gates which Jehovah thy God giveth thee, man or woman, that doeth that which is evil in the sight of Jehovah thy God, in transgressing his covenant,
3 and hath gone and served other gods, and worshipped them, or the sun, or the moon, or any of the host of heaven, which I have not commanded;
4 and it be told thee, and thou hast heard of it, then shalt thou inquire diligently; and, behold, if it be true, and the thing certain, that such abomination is wrought in Israel,
5 then shalt thou bring forth that man or that woman, who hath done this evil thing, unto thy gates, even the man or the woman; and thou shalt stone them to death with stones. (Deuteronomy 17 ASV)

I have found it difficult to find useful, specific and believable evidence for the meaning of the mark in the annuls of antiquity. The following website is one of the more helpful: The site equates the mark with the enforcement of sacrificial idol worship both against the practising Jews of the time and the Christians of the early church. Those that succumbed to the pressure by making sacrifices to false gods (the Mark of the hand) were often presented with wreaths or garlands to wear on their heads (the Mark on the forehead?). Those that refused to comply were tortured and/or killed.

Given all the above thoughts, I am now of the opinion that, whilst the first iteration of the Beast may have been the Roman Empire/Catholic Church, the argument that the man whose number was 666/616 could still have been Nero with the physical mark, enabling buying and selling, being his and the following Caesars’ coinage. The following preterist view of revelation makes a good case for this if you search on ‘charagma’:

Present Day

After a considerable, but necessary and important diversion, we now come to the main reason for my writing of this paper: the present-day end-times Mark and its possible technology and implementation timeframe. The spiritual Mark as described for the first implementation of the Mark still stands, but we need to examine who is today’s Beast and consider the possible physical Mark that will need to be implemented to enable the buying and selling to take place under its regime. Before we continue, let us have a precise look at the translations of the relevant Hebrew and Greek texts to see if these can throw any further light on the nature of the future Marks. Firstly, the original Hebrew Mark from God:

8 And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thine hand, and they shall be as frontlets between thine eyes. (Deuteronomy 6 KJV)

וּקְשַׁרְתָּם לְאוֹת, עַל-יָדֶךָ; וְהָיוּ לְטֹטָפֹת, בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ. (Deuteronomy 6 WLC)

The Hebrew word ‘
עַל’ means ‘upon’ which certainly matches today’s Jewish practice of placing the phylactery upon the hand; but which hand? The scripture does not specify. For the record, today’s Jews normally place it on the left hand. Left-handed males place it on the non-dominant right hand. However, these latter comments are man’s custom and practice since the scriptures do not specify which hand. The Hebrew word ‘בֵּין’ means ‘between’. This literally does not distinguish whether it is on or in. However, there is no question that in ancient Israel the word ‘on’ was intended as being outside rather than inside the skull. I don’t believe brain surgery skills had been fully developed in those days! The following provides insight to the present-day practice: The current strict Jewish practice is traditionally carried out by the males only. Whilst the above scripture does not explicitly state this as a gender specific ordinance, arguably a previous verse does place this requirement upon the males of the nation of Israel:

2 that thou mightest fear Jehovah thy God, to keep all his statutes and his commandments, which I command thee, thou, and thy son, and thy son's son, all the days of thy life; and that thy days may be prolonged. (Deuteronomy 6 ASV)

Let us now turn our attention to the equivalent Greek scripture. I have to say that I found it next to impossible to find an adequately accurate English translation for the current purpose, so I have had to resort to the Kingdom Interlinear to provide a literal translation:

16 And it is making all (ones), the small (ones) and the great (ones), and the rich (ones) and the poor (ones), and the free (ones) and the slaves, in order that they should give to them engraving upon the hand of them the right or upon the forehead of them, (KIT)

16 καὶ ποιεῖ πάντας, τοὺς μικροὺς καὶ τοὺς μεγάλους, καὶ τοὺς πλουσίους καὶ τοὺς πτωχούς, καὶ τοὺς ἐλευθέρους καὶ τοὺς δούλους, ἵνα δῶσιν αὐτοῖς χάραγμα ἐπὶ τῆς χειρὸς αὐτῶν τῆς δεξιᾶς ἢ ἐπὶ τὸ μέτωπον αὐτῶν, (WHO)

17 and in order that not anyone may be able to buy or to sell if not the (one) having the engraving, the name of the wild beast or the number of the name of it. (Revelation 13 KIT)

17 καὶ ἵνα μή τις δύνηται ἀγοράσαι ἢ πωλῆσαι εἰ μὴ ὁ ἔχων τὸ χάραγμα, τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ θηρίου ἢ τὸν ἀριθμὸν τοῦ ὀνόματος αὐτοῦ. (Revelation 13 WHO)

The Greek word ‘χάραγμα’ is best translated as ‘engraving’ and the Greek word ‘ἐπὶ’ is best translated as ‘upon’. Interestingly, in typical Satanic tradition, the Beast’s Mark will appear on the right hand which is the opposite of the Jewish tradition if not directly opposing God’s written requirement. So, certainly at first sight, this seems to be proposing that the Mark will be a physical emblem that would be visible to the human eye. Also, it could be machine-readable like a bar or QR code. If this were to be the case, then the technology is already available and proven. Consequently, no R&D programme would be required so its roll-out, from a technological perspective, could be rapid. However, this could prove to be a difficult Mark to apply to the population at large.

Let us compare the current day events with those in Nazi Germany in their persecution of the Jews. This latter process began in 1933 ( and the marking of Jews with the infamous yellow star of David did not start until 1939 which marked a period of some six years of worsening treatment of and propaganda against European Jews ( So, we see a slow but inexorable path for the Nazi policy against Jews during which it took six years to place the physical Mark. So, when did the present day ‘tribulation’ commence? I would argue that the demonic threat to the whole of humanity began in earnest from the commencement of the Covid-19 global lockdown in 2020. According to the LW chronology we are therefore working to an accelerated timetable of some 3 years against the unvaccinated compared with the Nazis’ 6 years of tribulation before the first Marks were applied against the Jews. A lot faster perhaps, but we are living in a much more connected world so a swifter timetable is not overly surprising in itself. However, given that the stringent governmental requirements associated with Covid-19 have been significantly eased over time, is this really a useful comparison? It may be, if a far more virulent virus should come our way, but I think that would be unlikely to unleash a strong response in the timeframe we are now contemplating with the LW chronology.

The only prospect in the near future I can see, with world affairs being as they are, would be if the world’s raw materials came into extreme shortage thereby causing a form of rationing of all goods to be implemented using a Mark. This would follow the pattern of WW2 in the UK, although this was phased in gradually during and after the war years: The difference this time though, is that there are acknowledged shortages already, largely resulting from the war in Ukraine and its repercussions. This would no doubt be accepted by the population at large as a justifiable policy which would require those with their eyes wide open to refuse bodily disfigurement on their right hands never mind the forehead. In discussing this overall issue of hi-tech implementation with Gordon, the LW President, he made the comment that the Mark of the Beast and the related digital currencies could come in sooner than currently expected, as a result of an accelerated start to WW3. Whilst this argument does hold some water, I still do not see that tech being rolled out as quickly or as acceptably as my proposed implementation of existing tech.

I still cannot see how a mark on the forehead would be generally accepted though. But, perhaps, this mark would have special significance and would be given to those deliberately accepting the Beast’s Mark to openly demonstrate their allegiance to Satan as an example to others? It is interesting to compare this to God's mark given to the Saints:

1 And I looked, and, lo, a Lamb stood on the mount Sion, and with him an hundred forty [and] four thousand, having his Father's name written in their foreheads. (Revelation 14 KJV)

So, is the Beast’s Mark on the forehead given only to his chosen ones, his unholy spirit of 144k demonically possessed humans? Since Satan is only capable of the unrighteous copying of God’s work, this seems a highly likely proposition. Also, this Mark will bear the name of the Beast, again in line with God’s intentions to write His name on His saints' foreheads. While God’s mark may be a purely spiritual one, the Beast’s mark will need to be physical to enable literal buying and selling.


Suppose, for a moment, that I am correct in my suppositions above about the use of existing tech to implement the Mark. If so, this would mean that all the technology being prepared as I write is actually a bum steer to put the faithful conspiracy theorists off the scent. One could just imagine the demons to be smart enough and leave the ‘old tech’ tattooed bar and/or QR codes to be ignored in the melee. So, let us have a look at some of the proposed new tech and what has been published on them and by whom.

So first off, we have radio frequency identification (RFID) tags embedded in the hand. As we can see this has already been implemented in a relatively small way:; I guess that it would not be too much of a stretch to extend the technology out to a global audience. One significant issue though would be with the readers. These would require an extensive global infrastructure that is not currently in place. Bar and QR readers are currently ubiquitous and found everywhere from your local supermarket to the readers on your mobile phones. So even with existing ‘new tech’ it appears that the old tech still has a massive edge in terms of an early implementation of the mark!

Then we have the infamous interview from Klaus Schwarb, the demon-in-chief of the World Economic Forum (WEF), promoting the idea of skin/brain implants: According to Herr Schwarb, such technology could be implemented by the year 2026, some 3 years from the writing of this paper. It was this claim that caused me to write this paper in the first case, to challenge the LW chronology. However, watching this I am beginning to think that Covid-19 and implants are just a smokescreen from our demonic enemies to enable an early surprise attack for what is actually about to take place. Whilst the rest of our (rightly) concerned commentators are focusing on the new and prospective technologies and who is talking about them, the real plan is being hatched. I mean, why would the demons announce how they were going to implement the Mark of the Beast? It does not make any sense to be centre stage and advertising their battle plans against their human enemy. No human army would announce their battle strategy prior to engaging with their enemy in wartime, so why would the demons? Oh yes, this IS a war! The demonic modus operandi is one of deception, the very opposite of what is being said out in the open. Check my earlier paper for the full story on this: Satan The Deceiver.

For what it is worth, there is an example of God’s marking of righteous men with an inked sign on their foreheads to protect them from the angel of death. If this example is meant to be compared to the future mark of the beast, then a tattooed mark rather than some high-tech option could well fit the bill:

3 And the glory of the God of Israel was gone up from the cherub, whereupon it was, to the threshold of the house: and he called to the man clothed in linen, who had the writer's inkhorn by his side.
4 And Jehovah said unto him, Go through the midst of the city, through the midst of Jerusalem, and set a mark upon the foreheads of the men that sigh and that cry over all the abominations that are done in the midst thereof.
5 And to the others he said in my hearing, Go ye through the city after him, and smite: let not your eye spare, neither have ye pity; (Ezekiel 9 ASV)

Then we have the other main plank of new hi-tech offerings purporting to contribute to the management of the ability to buy and sell: central bank digital currencies (CBDCs). Funny that the World Economic Forum has something to say on this subject also: I find the stated benefit of CBDCs to ‘increase financial inclusion’ to be ironic in the extreme; I cannot think of anything more calculated to have the very opposite effect. So, the 1.7 billion adults that do not have bank accounts do have smartphones?? What a crock! It also states that CBDC transactions will be traceable; more Big Brother control being threatened! Again, the timeframe for its likely global implementation is stated as mid-decade so as to coincide, presumably, with the  microchip implementation. I would use the same arguments as I did previously for the microchip option. Existing technology could supercede the need for CBDCs in being able to implement the Mark in a shorter timeframe than is being touted by the WEF and their friends.

For the record, I am not the first person who thinks bar and/or QR codes could be used as the prospective Mark of the Beast. However, these all seem to relate the structure of these codes with the number 666 (e.g.: I cannot consider these writers’ overall claims to be accurate since the number of the beast is the number of a man not a number related to the Mark’s structure:

17 and that nobody might be able to buy or sell except a person having the mark, the name of the wild beast or the number of its name.
18 Here is where wisdom comes in: Let the one that has intelligence calculate the number of the wild beast, for it is a man's number; and its number is 666. (Revelation 13 NWT)

As I have indicated above, another factor is to try to get the best bible translation to assist in our understanding:

16 And he causeth all, the small and the great, and the rich and the poor, and the free and the bond, that there be given them a mark on their right hand, or upon their forehead; (Revelation 13 ASV)

16 καὶ ποιεῖ πάντας, τοὺς μικροὺς καὶ τοὺς μεγάλους, καὶ τοὺς πλουσίους καὶ τοὺς πτωχούς, καὶ τοὺς ἐλευθέρους καὶ τοὺς δούλους, ἵνα δῶσιν αὐτοῖς χάραγμα ἐπὶ τῆς χειρὸς αὐτῶν τῆς δεξιᾶς ἢ ἐπὶ τὸ μέτωπον αὐτῶν, (Revelation 13 WHO)

Arguably, the best translation of the Greek word ‘ἐπὶ’ is ‘on’ or ‘upon’ which the above ASV translation would support. If this translation is indeed correct, then some form of implant would be ruled out. Also, if we go back to the wearing of phylacteries, these are of necessity ON the hand/arm and UPON the forehead.

However, there are some technical objections as to the readability of bar codes imprinted on the human skin. Bar codes have been designed to be used and read on flat surfaces. Clearly the human skin was not contemplated in the original manifestation and this website does not think bar codes would work in this context: I think that I would have to agree with this assessment.  However, while 1D bar codes probably would not work, 2D bar codes (aka QR codes) probably would work since they have error correcting capabilities which could deal with a certain degree of surface irregularity: However, when we come to look at the information on the tattooing of QR codes on the human anatomy, relatively flat surfaces still seem to be the best bet. The inner wrist seems to be a favourite, but the hand itself is not considered as a suitably readable surface: this technology has already been proven and adopted as a Covid-19 passport:

I am not overly concerned that tattoos on the forehead are not mentioned in the above links, since I think the forehead would be an unusual place to want a tattoo under normal circumstances plus I think that the forehead would provide an eminently readable surface on the human body anyway. In contrast, I have some concern that the hand would not present a readable surface for a QR code. Let us have another look the wearing of phylacteries. Going back to the website link we looked at previously, we can see that the present-day practice is to wear them on the hand and the forearm: Let us have a closer look at the applicable scripture:

8 And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thine hand, and they shall be as frontlets between thine eyes. (Deuteronomy 6 KJV)

וּקְשַׁרְתָּם לְאוֹת, עַל-יָדֶךָ; וְהָיוּ לְטֹטָפֹת, בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ. (Deuteronomy 6 WLC)

As we saw previously, most scriptures translate the Hebrew prefix ‘
עַל’ as ‘upon’ or ‘on’. However, a more accurate translation would be ‘above’ thereby rendering the wearing of the mark to be mandated as above the hand, i.e.,  the forearm as per the common practice. Consequently, the inner wrist area for the tattooing of the QR code mark of the beast would correctly mimic the Old Testament requirement. Going back to Revelation 13:16, I previously stated that the best English translation of the Greek word ‘ἐπὶ’ is ‘on’ or ‘upon’. While this is the case, the same Greek word can also mean ‘above’ arguably supporting the current thesis. So, I think I can argue that the tattooing, of a QR code onto the inner wrist area of the right arm, as the physical Mark of the Beast is supported by both Old and New Testament scriptures. 

If the Moscow practice in the above link were the model to be followed, these would not necessarily have to be traditional tattoos but, possibly, some form of temporary transfer. I do not see this as a problem since this would enable relatively swift roll-out to them that asked for it, and the replacing of the deteriorating transfer with a new substitute would not run counter to the scriptures as far as I can make out. After all, phylacteries are not worn permanently but are a daily ritual. Of course, those wishing to have a more permanent tattoo could presumably also do so. I can just imagine there will be many who would see this as a desirable fashion accessory which would certainly fit with the description of those wishing to take the mark!

​Notwithstanding all the above comments regarding the Mark 'upon' the hand, we should probably not forget the ability of QR code apps on smartphones. I think it could be argued that these would probably meet the scriptural specification for the 21st Century Mark for those with the technical wherewithal: ( 

The 21st Century Beast

The main purpose of this paper I have now put to bed to my own satisfaction since my objective was to determine the timeframe for the Mark of the Beast. As stated above I now consider a date in 2023 to be likely using QR code technology. This rather than having to wait for microchips and CBDCs to be implemented and rolled out on a global basis probably not before 2026.

Unfortunately, I do not think that I am able to identify the 21st Century version of the Beast and, from what I have read, I do not think any other commentator on the matter can either despite their views to the contrary! There is much speculation on the subject and there are numerous candidates being proposed, some of which have merit and some that do not. Some examples of proposed candidates as the likely organisations, representing the Beast, include the World Health Organisation (WHO), World Economic Forum (WEF), United Nations (UN), European Union (EU), International Monetary Fund (IMF), European Central Bank (ECB) etc, etc… As one prime example we have the UN Agenda 2030: When one considers the current parlous state of the world, that the UN is allegedly presiding over, and then one reads the horse manure being trotted out in their Agenda 2030, something does not seem quite right somehow does it? They say all these wonderful words but where were their actions, past and present to back them up in an attempt to put right the ills of the world? I think the following scripture could well include all of the above organisations as well as big business:

12 because we have a wrestling, not against blood and flesh, but against the governments, against the authorities, against the world rulers of this darkness, against the wicked spirit forces in the heavenly places. (Ephesians 6 NWT)

Another such example that has some merit would be the continuation of the Roman Empire in some new manifestation: In this, and other contexts, I would certainly see the Harlot of Revelation as still being the Roman Catholic Church continuing through from the 1st Century to the 21st Century:

1 And there came one of the seven angels that had the seven bowls, and spake with me, saying, Come hither, I will show thee the judgment of the great harlot that sitteth upon many waters;
2 with whom the kings of the earth committed fornication, and they that dwell in the earth were made drunken with the wine of her fornication.
3 And he carried me away in the Spirit into a wilderness: and I saw a woman sitting upon a scarlet-colored beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns.
4 And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet, and decked with gold and precious stone and pearls, having in her hand a golden cup full of abominations, even the unclean things of her fornication,

The Mark is not to be implemented until after the rapture of faithful Christians, so it is arguable that we are not meant to identify such an organisation prior to that time, since it will be of little consequence to the chosen one might argue:

10 'Because thou didst keep the word of my endurance, I also will keep thee from the hour of the trial that is about to come upon all the world, to try those dwelling upon the earth. (Revelation 3 YLT)

However, I am not averse to a little speculation of my own. Many writers on this overall topic, of the prospective modern-day Mark of the Beast, totally dismiss any application of technology in favour of some symbolic spiritual mark recognisable only by God and Satan. They could not be more wrong in my estimation. The ideas behind the ‘Great Reset’, ‘The Fourth Industrial Revolution’ and the notion of ‘Transhumanism’ have been touted by some large and powerful world organisations and corporations for several years prior to my writing of this paper. The World Economic Forum (WEF) seems to be centre stage for all this activity. Check out the broad spread of powerful governmental and international organisational representatives at the latest WEF conference to get the scale of the political muscle involved: This looks a likely candidate for the Beast since, as we have seen previously, it seems to be promoting the Satanic hi-tech options of both microchip implants and CBDCs.

Let us also look at some of the proposed initiatives that would support the technologies that could be used for the purpose of securing such a Mark. The first on the list is Microsoft’s proposal for the provision of digital IDs for the world’s population that, to date, has very little means of providing itself with any means of identification for the provision of goods and services: Microsoft is not working alone on this project, however, but as part of the so-called ID2020 Alliance together with the likes of Accenture and Avanade: The first thing that comes to my mind is David’s registration of Israel. This was not sanctioned by Jehovah who punished David’s nation severely for registering Jehovah’s people without His say so:

1 And Satan stood up against Israel, and moved David to number Israel.
2 And David said to Joab and to the princes of the people, Go, number Israel from Beer-sheba even to Dan; and bring me word, that I may know the sum of them.
3 And Joab said, Jehovah make his people a hundred times as many as they are: but, my lord the king, are they not all my lord's servants? why doth my lord require this thing? why will he be a cause of guilt unto Israel?
4 Nevertheless the king's word prevailed against Joab. Wherefore Joab departed, and went throughout all Israel, and came to Jerusalem.
5 And Joab gave up the sum of the numbering of the people unto David. And all they of Israel were a thousand thousand and a hundred thousand men that drew sword: and Judah was four hundred threescore and ten thousand men that drew sword.
6 But Levi and Benjamin counted he not among them; for the king's word was abominable to Joab.
7 And God was displeased with this thing; therefore he smote Israel.

11 So Gad came to David, and said unto him, Thus saith Jehovah, Take which thou wilt:
12 either three years of famine; or three months to be consumed before thy foes, while the sword of thine enemies overtaketh thee; or else three days the sword of Jehovah, even pestilence in the land, and the angel of Jehovah destroying throughout all the borders of Israel. Now therefore consider what answer I shall return to him that sent me.
13 And David said unto Gad, I am in a great strait: let me fall, I pray, into the hand of Jehovah; for very great are his mercies: and let me not fall into the hand of man.
14 So Jehovah sent a pestilence upon Israel; and there fell of Israel seventy thousand men. (1 Chronicles 21 ASV)

While David may have been guilty of not disregarding Satan’s wishes, I think this pales into insignificance compared to the Satanic machinations of Microsoft and friends. Given the treatment handed out to ancient Israel in this matter, I would not wish to be associated with ID 2020 in their endeavour to register one-seventh of God’s people on Earth today! Is this an early trial run for the implementation of the Mark on the hand?:

On top of that we then have Microsoft’s filing of a patent for a ‘Cryptocurrency System Using Body Activity Data’ that just happens to have the numeric sequence ‘…060606…’ in its publication number (hmmm!): So is Microsoft the Beast with Bill Gates the man of lawlessness? And here is a big surprise, the WEF supports the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation:!! This is the technology that Bill is investing in:

As at the time of writing, the official Lords’ Witnesses (LW) understanding of the Mark resides in a credit score/vaccination passport and a universal digital currency: item 64 at According to that understanding, and I quote: ‘The 6x of the specified musical instruments of Daniel 3:5 are the period between Mark Inauguration/Registration day on 2023Sivan29 (when it becomes possible to have the Mark) and Mark Enforcement day on 2023Tammuz5, when it becomes illegal to buy or sell without the Mark.’. The LWs do not seem to believe in a physical mark on the flesh as such, so there appears to be some distance between us even if we are coming together as far as a schedule is concerned. As I have explained previously, I do not see a digital currency being capable of being rolled out in the timeframe under consideration which is where I started this exercise. Also, for the record, there is focus on the WHO and/or Deep State in generic terms as the Beast.

As I mentioned earlier, one might well consider that Klaus Schwab (, as founder and chairman of the WEF, could be the man with the number of the Beast. However, I believe that the ‘man of lawlessness’ is one and the same as that man. We are told that this person will be ‘revealed’ in circumstances when there is no doubt as to who he is, so I expect a different (and possibly surprising) name to be forthcoming at that time:

2 not to be quickly shaken from your reason nor to be excited either through an inspired expression or through a verbal message or through a letter as though from us, to the effect that the day of Jehovah is here.
3 Let no one seduce you in any manner, because it will not come unless the apostasy comes first and the man of lawlessness gets revealed, the son of destruction.
4 He is set in opposition and lifts himself up over everyone who is called god or an object of reverence, so that he sits down in the temple of The God, publicly showing himself to be a god. (2 Thessalonians 2 NWT)

In addition to this, the LWs consider the Mark of Cain to be the Mark of the Beast in the greater meaning:

15 And Jehovah said to him, If anyone kills Cain, he shall be avenged sevenfold. And Jehovah set a mark on Cain, so that anyone who found him should not kill him. (Genesis 4 GLT)

In the literal meaning that Mark must have been a physical mark so that the folk, that came across Cain, had a visible sign that would have protected him from harm. I think this must have been a case of vengeance being the Lord’s, which will also be the case for the beast’s ultimate demise. For interest, the main LW webpage on the subject of the mark of Cain is to be found at: Whilst I am general agreement with the overall proposition presented there, I find myself disagreeing with some of the detailed understandings therein.



  1. The motivation for writing this paper stemmed from my concern that the current Lords’ Witnesses' chronology, for the manifestations of the end-times, is imminent as at the time of writing and is dependent on new technology coming in for the Mark of the Beast. That technology is unlikely to be ready for a full global roll-out in that timeframe. i.e., mid-2023.
  2. I have the belief that the Book of Revelation is a interpretive book written for the times in which it was written and those centuries immediately following. I believe that it also has a greater meaning for the times we are currently living in, i.e., the 21st Century.
  3. Curiously, I confirmed the above view in considering the beheadings of the Saints prophesied in the Book of Revelation. The Romans did not behead Christians in ancient Rome but ISIS does today!
  4. The early Beast of Revelation was the Roman Empire; the Harlot was the Roman Catholic Church; the man with the number was Emperor Nero.
  5. The Catholic Church changed a number of God’s unchangeable commandments with the particular example of the Sabbath Day’s being moved from the 7th to the 1st day of the week. Some commentators see this as being an early element of the Beast’s Mark.
  6. God’s Mark for his people was the wearing of phylacteries on the hand and the forehead, a practice that is still in place today by strict Jewish tradition. The Mark of the Beast would appear to be a counterfeit version of God’s Mark.
  7. The early Mark of the Beast is uncertain but it could have been associated with the wearing of garlands around the head as a reward for idol worship forced upon Christians and Jews alike. The Mark on the hand could have been related to the introduction of Roman coinage used for buying and selling.
  8. Turning my attention to today’s prospective Mark and the technology to be applied in that respect, I believe the Mark will need to be physical (not just spiritual) to enable the buying and selling to be restricted as per the scriptures. In my view, the scriptures effectively rule out implants into the human body and support a physical mark on the flesh.
  9. I have opted for QR codes to be used as the Mark of the Beast since this technology is already well-established with code readers omni-present on a global basis. Such a Mark could be readily ‘tattooed’ on the inside wrists of those willing to accept it. The tattooed foreheads could well be those solely of the Unholy Spirit, Satan’s demonic leaders, counterfeiting Jesus’ Holy Spirit.
  10. Also, the question arises in my mind as to why the demonic forces at work today are pushing the new technology of body implants and cryptocurrencies. I have never known a warring nation to declare its battle plan to its enemy prior to the first open battle! This has to be more demonic deception.
  11. There are several possible candidates for the 21st Century Beast but, until the man of lawlessness is revealed, I think the identification of the Beast prior to that, cannot be other than speculation. Fortunately, the faithful will not be around to find out!



I originally set out to challenge the LW chronology based on my view of the new technology required to implement the 21st Century version of the Mark of the Beast to be several years out. The chronology currently has mid-2023 to be the start of the visible manifestations of this. After studying the work on the new technology to deliver the Mark, it looks about 3 years out in 2026, 3 years beyond the current LW chronology. The finding in this paper, that I was not expecting, is that the technology to support the provision of the mark globally is already in place in the form of QR codes. Ironically therefore, whilst I am not underwriting the current LW chronology at a detailed level, I am now supportive of the end-times manifestations taking place this year (2023) but on the basis that existing tech is used. Health warning: I am well aware that this paper is highly time-critical. If battle has not been visibly seen to commence by the end of this year, I feel Addendum 1 will be on the cards early in the new year! 

​​​​Date of Publication: 20th June 2023