Jewish Lords' Witness


A Brief History of Darkness Synopsis


This paper attempts to correlate the two main unsolved cosmological mysteries that  remain in the understandings of scientists today of Dark Matter and Dark Energy with the scriptural descriptions of Heaven and Hell. The ultimate revelation would be that these represent real physical signs in the stars of God’s spiritual creation.


Main Themes:


1. A careful reading of the Genesis 1 account reveals that Darkness is something different from Light rather than merely the absence of Light.
2. Many Old Testament accounts indicate that God resides in thick Darkness; is this a description of heaven?
3. On the other hand many New Testament accounts indicate that demons and sinful mankind will be cast into Darkness; is this a description of Tartarus and /or Gehenna?
4. Dark Matter is the ‘extra-universal’ glue that stops galaxies falling apart.
5. Dark energy is the ‘extra-universal’ force that is causing the known physical universe to expand at an accelerating pace.
6. Taking the above concepts and looking at Genesis 1 even more carefully it appears that scriptural Darkness just might relate to Dark Matter and Dark Energy and that both of these were in existence before the creation of physical light.
7. Dare we compare the two scriptural abodes in Darkness with the two Dark and mysterious cosmological phenomena? Could the galactic gravitational stranglehold of Dark Matter equate to the spiritual prison of Tartarus or Gehenna for the demons or sinful mankind? Could the expanding effect of inter-galactic Dark Energy equate to the freedom experienced by the faithful sons of God?
8. According to scripture, spirit creatures can make the transition from the spirit world to our physical world and back again whereas humankind seem only to be able to make the transition from the physical to the spiritual through physical death.
9. M-Theory seems to be the best currently developing theory which has the ability to combine the current knowledge of atomic structure with the only microscopic view of gravity that actually seems to work. It comes complete with eleven space-time dimensions compared with our experience of only four; difficult for us to comprehend but not necessarily difficult for our God to create.
10. An examination of an M-Theory creation model and its comparison with scripture paints a possible picture of Heaven equating to Dark Energy. This Dark Energy acts as creation’s driving force and provides the separation between the physical creation and Gehenna/Tartarus, the latter equating to the extra-universal Dark Matter.  Worthy of mention is that this creation model avoids the flaws in the classical Big Bang theory of creation and so holds considerable credibility.
11. There are numerous scriptural examples of spirits moving under varied circumstances between the three estates of God’s creation: Heaven, the Physical Universe, Gehenna/Tartarus. This further substantiates the three element model previously described and the relationship between them.
12. Since November 2009, the Compact Muon Solenoid started to operate at the CERN laboratory in Switzerland to experimentally uncover hitherto hidden aspects of particle physics. With the experimental discovery of the Higgs' Boson in 2012, this seems to be starting to prove some of the cosmological theories proposed in this understanding. In so doing it has begun to substantiate a portion of this biblical interpretation of the nature of the creation of the cosmos correlating the physical with the spiritual. Progress on the work at CERN up to mid-November 2012 seems not to have provided any experimental proof for super-symmetry but would appear to have discovered the previously hidden Higgs boson. It will be interesting to see how this moves forward and to monitor the scientific community's response in the eventuality that either concept are proven or disproven beyond doubt, hopefully in 2015 when the higher energy round of experiments are planned to start in CERN.

Image: ESA

Universal Dark Matter Distribution


God and Science


It would appear that the Lords’ Witnesses are not the only ones to have spotted this linkage between scripture and the final cosmological frontier. I quote from another author on the internet: ‘Recent discoveries in theoretical physics and cosmology have profound implications for the existence of God. Theoretical physicists provided strong evidence for the existence of a higher dimensional world which could be the "spirit world" where God and angels dwell. Cosmologists discovered a large amount of invisible matter (dark energy and cold dark matter) whose properties are entirely different from ordinary matter. Are they made up of "spirit particles"?’


This tantalising question, together with some proposed answers may be found written by Frank Lee at the following web-site: 
http://www.web-books.com/GoodPost/Articles/SeeGod.htm

References


Bible references throughout this Understanding have been taken from the King James Version except where there are significant deviations from the precise meaning of the original Greek or Hebrew texts in which cases the New World or Young's Translation has been used as appropriate.

Image: Dreamstime

God and Science

The Compact Muon Solenoid


‘The what’ do I hear you say? Yes you got it right the first time ‘The Compact Muon Solenoid’ or CMS for short. The trouble with all the foregoing material is that it is entirely based on theoretical physics; none of it has been capable of having been proven by scientific experiment up to the first writing of this paper. The strength of any good scientific theory is in its ability to be substantiated by practical experimentation; this is the only way that good science progresses. The CMS has begun to provide the experimental evidence that the above theories are correct and may help to uncover further secrets of God’s wonderful creation.


So what is the CMS? Well it is a gigantic general-purpose particle detector which in 2008 was planned to play centre stage for the largest physics experiment ever conducted on Earth. That really is quite a claim but one that is wholly justified.


This experiment has been investigating physical processes at the energy level of tera-electron-Volts (TeV)—where one tera-electron-Volt equals one trillion (10**12) electron-Volts (eV), and one eV equals one volt times the charge (in coulombs) of a single electron. Trust me this is a seriously big number and represents enormous experimental power compared with any previous similar measurements.


In September 2008, the proton-proton Large Hadron Collider (LHC) particle accelerator of Geneva, Switzerland’s CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research)—the world’s largest particle physics laboratory—was switched on for testing. At that time, it began to accelerate beams of particles around a 27-kilometer (16.8-mile circumference), 21-meter (68.9-foot length), 16-meter (52.5-foot diameter), and 12,500-ton (weight) cylindrical underground chamber to energies never before generated on the Earth. The particles will then collide with each other as they pass through the CMS particle detector. While within the CMS, the energy and momentum of electrons, photons, muons, and other particles produced by the collisions will be measured.


The LHC was expected to become the world's largest and highest energy particle accelerator in 2008, when commissioning at 7 TeV was due to be completed. However some serious problems in the latter stages of the testing related to the cooling of the large magnets required to move the protons around the circular tunnel have ended with main operations being delayed until Autumn 2009. For a scientist such as myself I found this very disappointing at the time and it did cause me to wonder whether God considers the LHC as a latter day Tower of Babel and was consequently ensuring that mankind's natural imperfections had their effect. However, the timing of this peak of performance in the run up to Armageddon, together with the energy level operating at God’s favourite number of TeV, may still be no coincidence. God is clearly allowing us to reveal the secrets of his creation at the very time that humankind manifestly starts destroying itself. A delicious sense of irony don’t you think?


At this extremely large energy level, the scientists have studied collisions of protons which scientists are hoping will be able to answer some of nature’s most fundamental questions. Amongst others some of the goals of these scientists are:

  • to discover previously unknown particles (such as the Higgs boson – more on this shortly)
  • find evidence of super-symmetry (more on this shortly too!)
  • explain the origin of mass
  • find extra dimensions of space
  • check out the characteristics of dark matter 


If such things can be realized, it may dramatically help scientists further explain a unified theory of all physical phenomena, what is sometimes called The Theory of Everything. All this sounds uncannily familiar does it not?

With the much-awaited results of the CMS experiment, 2009-12 was an exciting period of discovery for physics. For more information, the Web home page of CMS is: 
http://cms.cern.ch/

As indicated above, one of the particles that scientists hoped to detect was the Higgs Boson, a particle which has been theorised but never actually recorded prior to the CMS experiment. Scientists believed the Higgs Boson is the particle that gives the property of mass to other particles such as electrons. If they could have proven that it exists then they would have taken a big step towards a much fuller understanding of how the universe works, and indeed, what happened in the instants immediately after it was formed.

Physicists had previously observed 16 particles that made up all matter under the Standard Model of fundamental particles and their interactions. However the sums did not quite add up for the Standard Model to be true if these particles are considered alone. If only 16 particles existed, they would have no mass - contradicting what we know to be true in nature. Another particle, not previously experimentally confirmed, had to give them this mass. Enter the Higgs boson, first proposed by University of Edinburgh physicist Peter Higgs and colleagues in the late 1960s. Their theory was that all particles acquire their mass through interactions with an all-pervading field, called the Higgs field, which is carried by the Higgs Boson.

The Higgs' importance to the Standard Model led Nobel Prize-winning physicist Leon Lederman to dub it the "God particle". Not to put too fine a point on it, the Higgs is the cornerstone of 21st-century physics; it simply has to be there, otherwise the standard model of the universe collapses. Interesting that a scientist recognises the key to unlocking the universe as we know it was put there by our creator don’t you think?

Well I am pleased to say that the Higgs Boson was discovered in the CMS experiment in 2012 although much further detailed work on the measurements involved at the time has since been carried out up to the date of this update in the autumn of 2014. The almost boring part is that it seems to fit perfectly with the current Standard Model without any need for a radical update although there are still many mysteries out there as I previously mentioned: 
http://home.web.cern.ch/topics/higgs-boson

One of the predictions of string theory is that at higher energy scales we should start to see evidence of a symmetry that gives every particle that transmits a force (a boson) a partner particle that makes up matter (a fermion), and vice versa. This symmetry between forces and matter is called supersymmetry. The partner particles are called superpartners. In particle experiments to date there has not yet been any direct evidence for the existence of superpartners for known elementary particles (although there is some indirect evidence). If they exist there is a good chance we could start to see superpartners in future LHC particle experiments. If that happened, it could turn out to be experimental evidence for string theory. This again shows the importance of the upcoming CERN experiments to our ‘Dark’ proposition: 
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-28218775

So it would appear that God is allowing mankind to discover the true nature of our existence once our science is up to the job. This will coincide with our Lord's coming at the appointed time which gives further evidence that we are in the end times:


5  Therefore judge nothing before the time, until  the Lord come, who both will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and will make manifest the counsels of the hearts: and then shall every man have praise of God. (1Corinthians 4)

Image: Courtesy CERN

CMS Higgs Event Simulation

What Wonders Await?


Doesn’t the description of dark energy sound a little like our literal scriptural knowledge of heaven? We cannot see it, it is hidden from us but we can see its effects. The wonder of all this is that if the concepts described in this paper are correct then the glory of heaven is all around us and very close to us but unseen by us. We are actually living slap bang in the middle of it and we don’t know it. Doesn’t that strike a chord? Perhaps it is no coincidence that ‘darkness’ is described in scripture whilst the word ‘dark’ is used by today’s scientists to describe cosmological phenomena of which mankind is now conscious but which remain tantalisingly just beyond our current understanding of the cosmos?


Is it not fitting therefore that the reality behind the two greatest mysteries of the cosmos that mankind has ever faced are likely to be revealed to us by our all-powerful God on the eve of his Day? Those mysteries being intimately linked to the nature of his whole creation as revealed in scripture. In that context let us also remember that our physical universe, as wonderful and expansive as it is, still only represents a tiny proportion of God’s creation as measured by gravitational effect. That God wants to declare his intent to mankind now through the Lords’ Witnesses at this time is surely another sign to demonstrate to his earthly children that we are his true church in these final days of Satan’s kingdom on earth. What a wonderful prospect that we will be privileged to be in attendance when God reveals his full creation to righteous mankind in our generation. The writer can hardly wait!

Courtesy spirituality.org.au

Rays

Transitions Between the Three Estates of God’s Creation


As touched on in an earlier section above, another effect of the cyclic model of the universe is that there will come a time when the outer bounds of darkness will start contracting back towards the centre of creation. This presumably being associated with the freeing of spirits from the Tartarus/Gehenna ‘brane’ back out into heaven or into the less restrictive ‘brane’ of the physical universe. Despite our understanding that Tartarus/Gehenna is a prison for disembodied spirits, the concept that Tartarus/Gehenna is more like the physical universe than Heaven is perfectly consistent with this. We have already seen that heavenly spirits can freely traverse the divide between Heaven and the physical universe. Presumably they can also make that transition from Heaven to Tartarus/Gehenna. Man’s spirit can only make that transition after his disembodiment after death. This mechanism would presumably allow demonic spirits to make that transition from Tartarus/Gehenna to Heaven so there must be some kind of different physical property in Tartarus/Gehenna to inhibit such transitions or perhaps it is purely the power of the Holy Spirit which keeps the demonic spirits in their place until such time as they are released by their Heavenly jailers?


Now one question that may rightly arise in the mind of the reader in this overall context is ‘How did demonic possessions work in New Testament times?’ Let us consider firstly a couple of examples of possession from the scriptures including that most infamous and graphic example:


8  For he said unto him, Come out of the man, thou unclean spirit. 
9  And he asked him, What is thy name? And he answered, saying, My name is Legion: for we are many. 
10  And he besought him much that he would not send them away out of the country. 
11  Now there was there nigh unto the mountains a great herd of swine feeding. 
12  And all the devils besought him, saying, Send us into the swine, that we may enter into them. 
13  And forthwith Jesus gave them leave. And the unclean spirits went out, and entered into the swine: and the herd ran violently down a steep place into the sea, (they were about two thousand;) and were choked in the sea. (Mark 5)


32  As they went out, behold, they brought to him a dumb man possessed with a devil.
33  And when the devil was cast out, the dumb spake: and the multitudes marvelled, saying, It was never so seen in Israel. (Matthew 9)


Several points are clear from this. Firstly demonic spirits were allowed out of Tartarus in those times, presumably under some kind of controlled parole. Secondly Jesus appeared to have complete control over the demonic spirits. He was able to cast them out or transfer them between different physical subjects. Thirdly in the first example it can only be presumed that the Legion of spirits deliberately committed suicide inside the herd of swine since they decided that they preferred to be imprisoned in Tartarus rather than inside the body of a pig! So it appears that both a direct casting out or the death of the physical subject of the possession would have had the same effect of the liberation of the evil spirit from the corporeal subject and its transfer back to Tartarus. So it would appear that both the ability for demons to cross the spiritual-earthly border and the power of Jesus to forcibly return them from whence they came were effected in those times. Perhaps this was enabled as a sign for Christians at the time to renew their faith in Jehovah.


Let us examine the scriptures a little further:


28  But if I cast out devils by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God is come unto you. (Matthew 12)


14  And he ordained twelve, that they should be with him, and that he might send them forth to preach, 
15  And to have power to heal sicknesses, and to cast out devils: (Mark 3)


38  And John answered him, saying, Master, we saw one casting out devils in thy name, and he followeth not us: and we forbade him, because he followeth not us. 
39  But Jesus said, Forbid him not: for there is no man which shall do a miracle in my name, that can lightly speak evil of me. (Mark 9)


These scriptures represent the power to exorcise demonic spirits to be not only within the power of Christ but stemming from the Holy Spirit and then being endowed upon the apostles and the 1NC Saints. They also present the ability to heal sickness and generally perform miracles from the same source. So it would appear that these persons therefore are the keepers of the keys to heaven which are required for entry from Tartarus or the earth. The miracle and gate-keeping abilities of the Holy Spirit are both in keeping with the three estate model we have built up. The heavenly realm acts as the ‘buffer zone’ between the two physical states of earth and Tartarus and the multibrane multidimensional reality which is hidden from us today enables spiritual  beings to perform quite naturally what appear to be miracles in our limited earthly view. There are numerous other scriptures which continue in this vein of gate-keeping and miracle working:


19  But the angel of the Lord by night opened the prison doors, and brought them forth, and said, (Acts 5)


7  And, behold, the angel of the Lord came upon him, and a light shined in the prison: and he smote Peter on the side, and raised him up, saying, Arise up quickly. And his chains fell off from his hands. 
8  And the angel said unto him, Gird thyself, and bind on thy sandals. And so he did. And he saith unto him, Cast thy garment about thee, and follow me. 
9  And he went out, and followed him; and wist not that it was true which was done by the angel; but thought he saw a vision. 
10  When they were past the first and the second ward, they came unto the iron gate that leadeth unto the city; which opened to them of his own accord: and they went out, and passed on through one street; and forthwith the angel departed from him. (Acts 12)


25  And at midnight Paul and Silas prayed, and sang praises unto God: and the prisoners heard them. 
26  And suddenly there was a great earthquake, so that the foundations of the prison were shaken: and immediately all the doors were opened, and every one's bands were loosed. (Acts 16)


God’s Holy Spirit helpers are clearly able to open the prisons of the earth. Why would we not believe the similar capability resides in the spiritual realms?


19  And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. (Matthew 16)


18  I am he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive forevermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death. (Revelation 1)


7  And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write; These things saith he that is holy, he that is true, he that hath the key of David, he that openeth, and no man shutteth; and shutteth, and no man openeth; (Revelation 3)


1  And the fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth: and to him was given the key of the bottomless pit. 
2  And he opened the bottomless pit; and there arose a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace; and the sun and the air were darkened by reason of the smoke of the pit. (Revelation 9)


1  And I saw an angel come down from heaven, having the key of the bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand. 
2  And he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him a thousand years, 
3  And cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years should be fulfilled: and after that he must be loosed a little season. (Revelation 20)


7  And when the thousand years are expired, Satan shall be loosed out of his prison, (Revelation 20)


Finally does not Luke 16 perfectly describe the barrier between Gehenna and Heaven as a ‘great gulf fixed’?


22  And it came to pass, that the beggar died, and was carried by the angels into Abraham's bosom: the rich man also died, and was buried; 
23  And in hell he lifted up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom. 
24  And he cried and said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame. 
25  But Abraham said, Son, remember that thou in thy lifetime receivedst thy good things, and likewise Lazarus evil things: but now he is comforted, and thou art tormented. 
26  And beside all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed: so that they which would pass from hence to you cannot; neither can they pass to us, that would come from thence. (Luke 16)

Image: ESA/AOES Medialab

Triverse

Parallel Universes


Now what has String or M-Theory got to do with Dark Matter or Dark Energy? As described above, the strings of String Theory can be ‘open’ or ‘closed’. According to String Theory, the particles which transmit the strong nuclear, weak nuclear and electromagnetic forces, are all open strings. Open strings stay in our universe, since they have open ends which attach to our universe. But, according to String Theory, the graviton (the particle which transmits gravity) consists of closed loops. This allows gravitons to wander to or from our universe to another. If such a theory is correct, gravity may be the only way we could communicate with other parallel universes, since it is the only force that is common to all universes and dimensions.


In this context, Dark Matter could actually be matter in other parallel universes (see the above section re Branes) but having gravitational effects in our universe. The concept of Parallel Universes is an idea which suggests that there exists other universes which we cannot see because they lie in another dimension, another direction. Consider a sheet of paper as a two-dimensional representation of our universe. Then we would be two-dimensional creatures and only able to see in two dimensions and not up. Then if there were other paper sheets stacked upon each other we could not see them, even though they were very close, since we would not be able to see up. It is a similar idea with parallel universes albeit difficult to visualise without the simple example given above.


So Dark Matter could be matter existing in another universe; this starts to explain why Dark Matter exists in the halos around galaxies. Gravity is an attractive force, which means that gravity pulls matter closer together. So two galaxies in two different universes should actually align. This would explain why the gravitational pull around our galaxies is greater than would be purely explained by the mass in our universe. The gravitons would be interacting between the two universes. This matches the observable facts that we cannot see Dark Matter itself but we can detect its gravitational effects. Thus we could be seeing the gravitational effects in our physical universe of the galaxies in a juxtaposed spirit universe. This, therefore, could represent Tartarus and/or Gehenna as galactic entities in a parallel spirit universe.


OK, so by this logic Dark Matter is a phenomenon in our physical universe of the gravitational effect caused by Gehenna/Tartarus in another (spiritual) universe or brane. So where does that leave Dark Energy? The answer could lie in the theories of Paul J. Steinhardt, of the Department of Physics Princeton University, related to his ideas of a  ‘cyclic’ model of the Universe. This presents a whole new outlook on cosmic history in which dark energy plays a central role. In this model, the big bang is not the beginning of time. Rather, it is a bridge to a pre-existing contracting era. The Universe undergoes a sequence of cycles in which it contracts in a big crunch and re-emerges in an expanding big bang, with trillions of years of universal evolution in between. In this picture, dark energy is moved to centre stage and is part of the engine that drives this cyclic process.


The cyclic model is motivated by recent developments in string theory, especially the ideas of branes and extra dimensions. In this picture, our three-dimensional universe may be a brane embedded in a space with one or more extra-dimensions. In M-theory, for example, this brane constitutes one of the boundaries of the extra dimension, and another brane lies at the other boundary. The cyclic model proposes that the two branes interact with one another through gravity resulting in a weak force that causes the branes to be drawn together and collide at regular intervals. Each collision causes the branes to bounce back to their original positions and creates matter and radiation whose gravitation causes the branes to begin to stretch. This represents the (not so big) bang and the subsequent expansion and cooling. The expansion continues at a decelerating rate until, after 15 billion years, the matter and radiation density are so thinly spread that it becomes negligible compared to the potential energy of the inter-brane force. This potential is hypothesised as the dark energy that drives the period of accelerated expansion that has recently been observed. The branes stretch at an accelerating rate, thinning the matter density to a near vacuum and flattening any curvature and warps in the branes. Eventually, the weak force draws the branes together, reducing the dark energy and naturally ending the accelerated expansion. The “contraction” that ensues is the contraction of the extra dimension. Our three-dimensions (the branes) remain stretched out and the temperature and density remain nearly zero until the branes collide. And the cycle starts again.


So what does this tell us? This theory relates two branes with an interbrane force between them. So if the Physical Universe and Dark Matter represent these two branes could Dark Energy represent the interbrane energy field? If so this introduces the interesting concept that Heaven represents the free energy/force which controls the interactions of the two more limited matter entities of the Physical Universe and Tartarus/Gehenna. More limited that is in dimensions or degrees of freedom. It also suggests that there are not necessarily innumerable parallel universes but only three; the physical universe of baryonic matter that is man’s domain, the spiritual dark matter universe of Tartarus/Gehenna that is the demons’ domain and the dark energy of heaven, God’s domain. Whilst only a theory, the cyclic model does come from a very well respected scientist in his field and, apart from addressing the flaws in the Big Bang theory whilst matching the observable measurements of these strange phenomena, it also interestingly appears to match perfectly the three estates of God’s creation.
How well is this concept supported in scripture. Well let us take a look at Genesis 1:


6  And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. 
7  And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so. 
8
  And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day. (Genesis 1) 

Arguably this could match the cyclic model of Steinhardt in which Genesis has a Word Symbolic meaning in which the two waters represent the Physical Universe and Tartarus/Gehenna separated by the Heavenly Firmament. This model and its correspondence with these verses from Genesis would support how both the cosmic mysteries of Dark Matter and Dark Energy interact with our world and, indeed, with each other and puts them both into a context of theoretical physics and God’s word.


In this context let us revisit Genesis 1:2:


2  And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the 
deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. (Genesis 1)


This seems to further support the current interpretation in that God’s heavenly spirit existed, at least at the time of the creation, over the surface of the waters (the surface of the spiritual and physical branes) and therefore within the heavenly space/energy between the two.


For a fuller text of Steinhardt’s work please check out the following link:
http://www.physics.princeton.edu/~steinh/steinhardt.pdf


There are numerous other related web-sites on the same theme of a cyclic model of the universe (which, as we suggest earlier, removes the difficult elements of the Big Bang theory) one of which can be found at:
http://www.npl.washington.edu/av/altvw115.html


So we seem to be developing the understanding of a scheme in which mankind and the demons are ‘trapped’  in limited universes of matter, albeit of no doubt very different physical properties, whereas God and his Holy family are free to extend themselves throughout the intervening ‘space’ of dark energy. Is it so surprising that the Holy Ones should be more likened to energy rather than beings made of matter since even mankind’s poor understandings of his universe would likely place the spirit world closer in nature to energy rather than physical matter. We should not lose sight of the known inter-changeability between matter and energy as epitomised in Einstein’s most famous of equations e = mc2. Most noteworthy is that the speed of light features so significantly in this inter-changeability. The implications, for instance of the Munrose Hypothesis in this, could be significant. This becomes even more evident from scripture when we consider the section above regarding the ‘Interactions Between the Heavenly and Earthly Realms’ and references to people’s faces shining as a result of exposure to the heavenly ‘radiation’. Again this seems to be God telling us a little more about his own very nature and reminding us of our current limited capability.


Scripture compares the light–giving qualities of the sun (the most explicit example we know of the transformation between matter and energy) to be equated to the Holy Ones of a purely spiritual nature and the moon (a purely physical entity) which nonetheless has the ability to reflect the sun’s light energy. A comparison between the estates of Michael and Satan or those of God’s own realm and those of the physical universes perhaps:


26  If I beheld the sun when it shined, or the moon walking in brightness; (Job 31)


1  And there appeared a great wonder in heaven; a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars: (Revelation 12)


One day, however, even the light-giving properties of the sun will be replaced by the greater light of our Lord, this further emphasising the energy nature of God:


19  The sun shall be no more thy light by day; neither for brightness shall the moon give light unto thee: but the LORD shall be unto thee an everlasting light, and thy God thy glory. (Isaiah 60)


23  And the city had no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it: for the glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is the light thereof. (Revelation 21)

Image: ESA

Multiverse

Introduction to M or String Theory


In the last few decades, string theory has emerged as the most promising candidate for a microscopic theory of gravity. It is, however, infinitely more ambitious than that: it attempts to provide a complete, unified, and consistent description of the fundamental structure of our universe. (For this reason it is sometimes, quite arrogantly, called a 'Theory of Everything').


The essential idea behind string theory is this: all of the different 'fundamental ' particles of the Standard Model are really just different manifestations of one basic object: a string. These strings can be closed, like loops, or open, like a hair. As the string moves through time it traces out a tube or a sheet, according to whether it is closed or open. Furthermore, the string is free to vibrate, and different vibrational modes of the string represent the different particle types. One mode of vibration, or `note', makes the string appear as an electron, another as a photon. There is even a mode describing the graviton, the particle carrying the force of gravity, which is an important reason why String Theory has received so much attention. The point is that we can make sense of the interaction of two gravitons in String theory in a way we could not in Quantum Field Theory. So, the first great achievement of String Theory was to give a consistent theory of quantum gravity.


One of the most remarkable predictions of String Theory is that space-time has ten dimensions! At first sight, this may be seen as a reason to dismiss the theory altogether, as we obviously have only three dimensions of space and one of time in our observable universe. However, if we assume that six of these dimensions are curled up very tightly, then we may never be aware of their existence. Furthermore, having these so-called compact dimensions are very beneficial if String Theory is to describe a Theory of Everything. The idea is that degrees of freedom like the electric charge of an electron will then arise simply as motion in the extra compact directions!


M-theory is a development from String Theory which lives not in 10 but in 11 dimensions. This seems to be telling us that M-theory should be viewed as an 11 dimensional theory that looks 10 dimensional at some points in its space of parameters. Rather than being tiny and restrictive, the 11th dimension allows a string to be able to expand. An expanded string is known as a 'brane' (short for membrane). How do we visualise a brane? It turns out that this depends on how much energy the string has. Mathematics has shown that the more energy you give a string in the 11th dimension, the larger the brane can become – give it enough energy and it could be the size of the Universe. This begs the question that perhaps the Universe is a brane – are we all living on the skin of a brane? Thinking about this, there is another logical question to ask – are there other branes? This is a startling prospect since another brane is in fact another Universe. Perhaps there is a brane right next to the one we call our Universe, another brane paralleling our brane – a parallel Universe! The laws of physics and the forces that act within any particular brane are considered to be a manifestation of the strings that are attached to that brane. And different branes may well have different strings and hence different laws of physics.


Whilst we cannot truly envisage what a 11-dimensional universe could really be like, we should not sell our God short by suggesting that such a thing is impossible for him. So is this really such an unbelievable or surprising concept? The more one thinks about this the more it seems highly probable that this could rightly describe the heavens and environment in which God and his spirit family live, an existence well beyond man’s current understanding.


Perhaps the most remarkable thing about string theory is that such a simple idea works; it is possible to derive the Standard Model from a theory of strings. But it should also be said that, to date, there is no direct experimental evidence that string theory itself is the correct description of Nature. This is mostly due to the fact that string theory is still under development. It is also fair to say that whilst string theory has its detractors in the scientific community; it does appear to be the only theory of everything under serious consideration right now and does lead us to some interesting perspectives in trying to align the physical with the spiritual.

The following links cover this introductory scientific material and much more:

http://www.nuclecu.unam.mx/~alberto/physics/string.html
http://theory.tifr.res.in/~mukhi/Physics/string2.html
http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/user/gr/public/qg_ss.html

Image: NASA/ ESA/ STScI/ AURA (The Hubble Heritage Team)

M Theory


The Standard Model


String theory is mankind’s most recent attempt to answer the fundamental questions of ‘How did the universe come into existence and what is it made of?’


Our current knowledge tells us that ordinary (baryonic) matter is made of atoms, which are in turn made of just three basic components: electrons whirling around a nucleus composed of neutrons and protons. The subatomic composition of the universe is summarized in what is known as the Standard Model of particle physics. It describes both the fundamental building blocks out of which matter is constructed, and the forces through which these blocks interact.


There are four fundamental forces in the universe: gravity, electromagnetism, and the weak and strong nuclear forces. Each of these is produced by fundamental particles that act as carriers of the force. The most familiar of these is the photon, a particle of light, which is the mediator of electromagnetic forces. (This means that, for instance, a magnet attracts a nail because both objects exchange photons.) The graviton is the particle associated with gravity.


The behaviour of all of these particles and forces is described with impeccable precision by the Standard Model, with one notable exception: gravity. For technical reasons, the gravitational force, the most familiar in our every day lives, has proven very difficult to describe microscopically. This has been for many years one of the most important problems in theoretical physics-- to formulate a quantum theory of gravity.

For the uninitiated reader the following web-site is a pretty good introduction to the Standard Model: 
http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A666173

Image: European Nuclear Society

The Standard Model


Interactions Between the Heavenly and Earthly Realms


There are several scriptural examples of heavenly spirits interacting with physical man. The two most graphic examples being when Moses was with God on Mount Sinai and the transfiguration of Jesus:


22  And it shall come to pass, while my glory passeth by, that I will put thee in a cleft of the rock, and will cover thee with my hand while I pass by: 
23  And I will take away mine hand, and thou shalt see my back parts: but my face shall not be seen. (Exodus 33)


29  And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two tables of testimony in Moses' hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses knew not that the skin of his face shone while he talked with him. 
30  And when Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face shone; and they were afraid to come nigh him. (Exodus 34)


1   And after six days Jesus taketh Peter, James, and John his brother, and bringeth them up into a high mountain apart, 
2   And was transfigured before them: and his face did shine as the sun, and his raiment was white as the light. 
3   And, behold, there appeared unto them Moses and Elijah talking with him. (Matthew 17)


In both cases fleshly man was affected by having his face start to shine. The former was clearly caused by Moses direct interaction with God’s appearance to him. With Jesus it is a little less clear to the writer but he was seen in conversation with Moses and Elijah. Interestingly the latter case suggests that both Moses and Elijah were alive and well in heaven, rather than resting in death, given the manner of their departures from the physical realm in that they were both taken by God from this world into the next:


5  So Moses the servant of the LORD died there in the land of Moab, according to the word of the LORD.
6   And he buried him in a valley in the land of Moab, over against Beth-peor: but no man knoweth of his sepulcher unto this day. (Deuteronomy 34)


11   And it came to pass, as they still went on, and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, and parted them both asunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven.  (2Kings 2)


So it would appear that the dark heavenly forces not only have gravitational effects upon this physical universe but also can provide some form of energy which makes men’s faces physically light up. It would also appear that the dark realms have no need for light as we understand it (perhaps this is why God needed to create it just for us) since heavenly spirits have their own light. A light those who are saved ultimately will also have:


23  And the city had no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it: for the glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is the light thereof. (Revelation 21)


5  And there shall be no night there; and they need no candle, neither light of the sun; for the Lord God giveth them light: and they shall reign forever and ever. (Revelation 22)


Furthermore it would appear from the above scriptures that spirit creatures can depart their heavenly realms to enter the physical realm. There are many other less dramatic examples in scripture of angels visiting man in his world to carry out the work of our Lord on Earth:


1  And there came two angels to Sodom at even; and Lot sat in the gate of Sodom: and Lot seeing them rose up to meet them; and he bowed himself with his face toward the ground; (Genesis 19)


1  And Jacob went on his way, and the angels of God met him. (Genesis 32)
 
For physical creations to enter the heavenly realms it seems as if this can only happen through death which would appear to free the spirit from the body to make that transition possible. Another consideration are the miracles that abound in both the Hebrew and Greek scriptures. How were they made possible if we accept that they were performed outside of the limited physical laws of the known universe? At this point in the debate we need to consider if there is an extra-universal implication here to further support our thinking thus far and literally add a further dimension (or 7 as it turns out!) to our argument. More science, I am afraid, is necessary since we now need to consider another leading edge theory of the cosmos by looking at the implications ofM-Theory, the Theory formerly known as String Theory or the Theory of Everything.

Image: WPClipart

Transfiguration of Christ

Heaven, Hell and the Future of the Universe


Previously we have noted that the Hebrew and Greek scriptures appear to denote two different types of darkness, the Hebrew version describing where God lives and the Greek version describing where the demons are incarcerated. Two different scriptural versions of darkness equating perhaps to two different and perplexing cosmological dark phenomena with, arguably, opposite effects on the physical universe, one of attraction (dark matter) the other of repulsion (dark energy).


Cosmological measurements show that 70% of the content of the Universe (which comprises mass or energy related by Einstein’s most famous of equations e=mc2) consists of the so-called dark energy, and 26% of cold dark matter. Ordinary baryonic matter, in the form of gas and stars etc., only makes up 4%. These numbers could be seen to make interesting reading since dark matter equates to some 37% of the universe’s total dark energy mass content. This number is not far away from one-third (33%). Does this number equate to God’s throwing down Satan and a third of the angels to the earth? Did God create dark matter environments around each physical galaxy within which to imprison them together with the graphic effect of pushing all the galaxies apart from each other through space expansion via dark energy?


And his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and did cast them to the earth: and the dragon stood before the woman which was ready to be delivered, for to devour her child as soon as it was born. (Revelation 12)


Further consider Job’s observations on his own prospective death:


21   Before I go whence I shall not return, even to the land of darkness and the shadow of death; 
22   A land of darkness, as darkness itself; and of the shadow of death, without any order, and where the light is as darkness. (Job 10)


So when Job dies he goes to the land of darkness and of deep shadow. But does he consider whether he is going to heaven or hell?


But perhaps Tartarus, the angelic prison, pre-figures the establishment of Gehenna coincident with the Kingdom  of God and exists today in either dark matter or energy. Is it not likely to be meaningful that there are two cosmic mysteries, each with opposing effects on the physical universe one representing good the other evil? Both would be spiritual realms but with very different qualities:


4  For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to Tartarus, and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment; (2Peter 2)


6  And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day.  (Jude 1)


12  And the fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars; so as the third part of them was darkened, and the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night likewise. (Revelation 8)


Could the demons be trapped in the positive gravitational fields of dark matter closely tied in to individual galaxies whilst the heavenly angels are free to flex their wings and to move about in an ever-expanding universe within an all-pervading negative gravity field?


12  Yea, the darkness hideth not from thee; but the night shineth as the day: the darkness and the light are both alike to thee. (Psalms 139)

The above scripture suggests that night and day, darkness and light are interchangeable to God. According to the Munrose Hypothesis, each creative day consists of an evening and a morning. From this it is therefore reasonable to assume that each change in the speed of light is also accompanied by a dark change of some sort. Could this be an increase in the amount of dark energy in the universe and therefore an increase in heaven’s physical and spiritual influence on the universe? Differing amounts of Dark Energy in the universe could be God’s way of adjusting the ‘size’ of the universe which could act as a brake or assist for inter-galactic travel v speed of light changes. I quote from the following web link: 
http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/Phys-SNAP-dark-energy.html 

"From the announcements in 1998 and subsequent measurements, we now know that the accelerated expansion of the universe did not start until sometime in the last 10 billion years," and "The cosmological constant was a vacuum energy (the energy of empty space) that kept gravity from pulling the universe in on itself," says Linder. "A problem with the cosmological constant is that it is constant, with the same energy density, pressure, and equation of state over time. Dark energy, however, had to be negligible in the universe's earliest stages; otherwise the galaxies and all their stars would never have formed."


It is also interesting that whilst darkness is portrayed as God’s abode in the Old Testament, as per the examples from the Hebrew scriptures presented at the beginning of this paper, that the dark forces are portrayed in a very different light (please forgive the pun) in the Greek Scriptures. Two very different but negative darknesses are described in Matthew and John, one describing the prospective abode of unfaithful man and secondly the absence of Godliness; or perhaps these are essentially describing the same state or condition?


12  But the children of the kingdom shall be cast out into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. (Matthew 8)


4  by means of him was life, and the life was the light of men. 
5  And the light is shining in the darkness, but the darkness has not overpowered it. (John 1)


Again this could be the identification from scripture of the two different kinds of darkness: Heaven v Hell and Dark Energy v Dark Matter. I have high-lighted in red the interesting phrase ‘outer darkness’. What might this mean? Well in cosmological terms each galaxy seems to have its own tightly bounded dark matter (symbolising a spiritual galactic prison?). Each galaxy is currently flying away from its neighbours at an increasing rate. So each galaxy is, in effect, flying away towards the edge of the universe. If dark energy effectively fills the gaps in space between the galaxies we will end up with a universe consisting of dark energy only with, perhaps, the Milky Way (Earth’s home galaxy) at its centre with the remaining galaxies, complete with their dark matter content, on the outside edge of that dark energy. This seems to be symbolising a central heavenly universe with its spiritual prisons on the periphery. Another scripture painting a similar fate for the demons and sinful mankind is to be found in Jude:


13  Raging waves of the sea, foaming out their own shame; wandering stars, to whom is reserved the blackness of darkness indefinitely. (Jude)


The dark matter in this scenario would very much represent an outer darkness with the following scripture representing God at the centre of the universe with his people round about him:


11  And I will set my tabernacle among you: and my soul shall not abhor you. 
12  And I will walk among you, and will be your God, and ye shall be my people. (Leviticus 26)


We are currently in an accelerating and expanding universe. As angels and men are eventually repatriated to their proper home in heaven during and after God’s Kingdom will the balance reverse and the repulsive effects of dark energy reduce as it becomes filled with more spiritual beings. This effect could return us to a decelerating universe that would start to bring the stars back together again in harmony and balance (more on this later)? Does the repulsion between the galaxies caused by dark energy prefigure righteousness and love through the freedom that God wants all his children to have? Similarly does the attraction between close heavenly bodies prefigure evil through the restriction of such freedom? Perhaps as Tartarus/Gehenna eventually empties itself of contrite spiritual beings the attractive force associated with dark matter will be reduced with the effect of unravelling the galactic structures in the universe? This would provide a more evenly and perhaps stable spread of physical matter throughout the universe compared with today’s large-scale galactic structures. All this represents the writer’s fanciful musings. However the bible certainly predicts that the Great Day of God will shake the heavens as well as the earth, so we shouldn’t be surprised at a significant change affecting the whole of the cosmos:


13  Therefore I will shake the heavens, and the earth shall remove out of her place, in the wrath of the LORD of hosts, and in the day of his fierce anger. (Isaiah 13)


Furthermore in the lead up to the great day of Jehovah perhaps these musings from a Lords’ Witness will take on more prophetic significance:


17  And it shall come to pass in the last days, saith God, I will pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh: and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, and your young men shall see visions, and your old men shall dream dreams: 
18  And on my servants and on my handmaidens I will pour out in those days of my Spirit; and they shall prophesy: 
19  And I will show wonders in heaven above, and signs in the earth beneath; blood, and fire, and vapor of smoke: 
20  The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before that great and notable day of the Lord come: (Acts 2)


25 And there shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars; and upon the earth distress of nations, with perplexity; the sea and the waves roaring; 
26  Men's hearts failing them for fear, and for looking after those things which are coming on the earth: for the powers of heaven shall be shaken. 
27  And then shall they see the Son of man coming in a cloud with power and great glory. (Luke 21)

Image: ESA/PACS/SPIRE/HOBYS Consortia

Heaven and Hell

Genesis


So going back to the earlier sections of this paper, it is beginning to look as if the dark matter and/or energy in our universe may actually be described as the abode of spiritual creation in the scriptures, i.e. the place where God and his spiritual sons actually live and from where they can observe and interact with us. If we bear in mind that dark energy and dark matter together are believed to represent some 96% of the universe’s combined total mass/energy then it starts to appear that the physical creation which we can observe and of which we are a part was actually a pretty small task compared with the creation of the heavens. One is tempted to draw an analogy here with the fact that, typically, around 90% of the volume of an iceberg is hidden under water, and that portion's shape can be difficult to surmise from looking at what is visible above the surface. We know how dangerous this can be from the fate of man’s proud maritime construction of the Titanic and its speedy demise care of one of God’s more ‘simple’ creations! Water, whilst being one of the most abundant and therefore common substances on our planet, nonetheless exhibits a very unusual physical property in common with very few other compounds: it expands when frozen, i.e. its solid form is less dense than its liquid phase. Once again this is beginning to sound like a lesson from our Lord trying to teach us that all is not what it seems on the surface and that pride does indeed come before a fall!


The creation story as recounted in the first verses of Genesis are interesting in this context:


1  In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. 
2  And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.
3  And God said, Let there be light: and there was light. 
4  And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness. (Genesis 1)


If we equate the spiritual heavens to darkness then the first of God’s creations were dark matter/energy and the physical matter making up the known universe and the earth.  God then divided the light from the darkness. This was after God created light; Genesis does not explicitly say that darkness was created but it certainly indicates that it existed ‘upon the face of the deep’.  The wording that God divided the light from darkness suggests that the darkness is not a lack of light but something different from light, e.g. dark matter and/or energy. Therefore rather than considering this to be a re-creation of light in a visible form as per U234, which tackles the literal meaning of Genesis 1, we are now actually looking at the word symbolic meaning of Genesis 1 which relates to the first creation of physical light and its being separated from the previously created darkness.


So as we are getting accustomed to, from our deeper studies into the scriptures, things are never what they seem. Darkness hides the glory of the heavens and Light shines on the inferior physical universe. Not quite the way  we have seen this divide before!!  If darkness is where God lives then it cannot lack spiritual light, since he is the source of all spiritual light. It must be a lack of purely physical light. Question: Why would God intimate that there is no physical light in heaven? Answer: Because heaven is this dark matter/energy in the universe. The MO of God is that he is not physically discernable from our senses but we deduce his existence by logic, i.e. through the eyes of our mind, from his effect on the physical things that we can see. This is precisely how we can discern dark matter/energy.

Image: ESA/Hi-GAL Consortium

Galactic Assembly Line

What is Dark Matter?


In astrophysics, dark matter is matter that does not emit or reflect enough electromagnetic radiation (such as light, X-rays and so on) to be detected directly, but whose presence may be inferred from its gravitational effects on normal visible matter. Among the observed phenomena consistent with the existence of dark matter are:

  • The rotational speeds of galaxies and orbital velocities of galaxies in clusters whereby stars revolve around the center of galaxies at a constant speed over a large range of distances from the center of the galaxy. Thus they revolve much faster than would be expected if they were in a free Newtonian potential. The galaxy rotation problem is this discrepancy between the observed rotation speeds of matter in the disk portions of spiral galaxies and the predictions of Newtonian dynamics considering the visible mass. This discrepancy is currently thought to betray the presence of dark matter that permeates the galaxy and extends into the galaxy's halo. 
  • Gravitational lensing of background objects by galaxy clusters such as the Bullet cluster. This is the effect which caused the first direct detection of dark matter by measuring the cosmic astigmatism caused by the gravitational lensing effect first noted by Albert Einstein some ninety years ago. Light rays from distant galaxies are slightly deflected by gravity as they pass through and near clumps of dark matter on their way to the Earth. Consequently, the appearance of a distant galaxy is slightly distorted. In this context the Bullet cluster provides the best evidence yet that dark matter does truly exist. Behind the observations of the Bullet cluster lies a remarkable bullet-shaped cloud of hot gas produced by the collision of two galaxy clusters. As they cross each other at 10 million miles per hour, the luminous normal matter in each interacts with the other and slows down. But the dark matter does not interact at all, passing right through without disruption. This causes the dark matter to sail ahead, separating each cluster into two components: dark matter in the lead and luminous matter lagging behind. The dark matter component, was detected indirectly by its gravitational lensing of background objects. In theories excluding dark matter the lensing would be expected to follow the normal (baryonic) matter. However, the lensing is strongest in two separated regions near the visible galaxies. This provides support for the idea that most of the mass in the cluster pair is in the form of collision-less dark matter. 
  • The temperature distribution of hot gas in galaxies and clusters of galaxies. A recent study of the X-ray emission of hot gas in a massive cluster of galaxies has allowed astronomers to determine the distribution of its dark-matter content. The density of dark matter appears to increase towards the centre of the cluster in agreement with cold-dark-matter predictions. This discovery was based on X-ray measurements on a regular and undisturbed galaxy cluster called Abell 2029. This cluster is located about a billion light-years from Earth, and is composed of thousands of galaxies enveloped in a gigantic cloud of hot gas. At the centre is an enormous elliptical galaxy that is thought to have been formed from the merging of a number of smaller galaxies. Hot gas is held in the cluster by gravity, but the mass of the galaxies in the cluster is not enough to explain the presence of this gas. Huge amounts of additional, invisible matter are needed for gravity to balance the pressure of the gas, which is at a temperature of more than 10 million degrees. This missing mass of unknown nature is considered to be dark matter. It seems the distribution of hot gas is mainly determined by that of the dark matter, rather than by the distribution of visible matter in the galaxies. Therefore, by precisely measuring the distribution of X-rays from the hot gas, scientists were able to make the best measurement yet of the dark-matter distribution in the inner region of a galaxy cluster. The X-ray data show that the dark-matter density increases smoothly all the way into the central galaxy of the cluster. This agrees with the predictions of cold-dark-matter models.
  • Dark matter plays a central role in structure formation whereby it appears that the manner in which galactic structures grow depends on the amount and type of dark matter present. All viable scientific models of structure formation today are dominated by cold dark matter.
  • The formation of chemical elements in the early stages of the creation of the universe known as Big Bang nucleosynthesis. Some of the lightest chemical elements in the universe - in particular, deuterium (a heavy isotope of hydrogen), helium-3, helium-4, and lithium-7 - were created in the early moments of the universe, when the whole universe was hotter than the interior of a star.  The amounts of each of these nuclei that were formed depends critically on the conditions in the early universe - in particular, the balance between normal baryonic matter (protons and neutrons) and non-baryonic dark matter (neutrinos and exotic particles).  Based on these ratios, astronomers have concluded that, in the universe as a whole, dark matter outmasses baryonic matter by a factor of almost 10.
  • Dark matter has measurable effects on the anisotropy (directional variability) of the cosmic microwave background. By making accurate measurements of the cosmic microwave background fluctuations, the WMAP mission has been able to measure the basic parameters of the (admittedly flawed) Big Bang model including the density and composition of the universe. WMAP measures the density of baryonic (normal) and non-baryonic (dark) matter to an accuracy of better than 5%. It was also able to determine some of the properties of the non-baryonic matter: the interactions of the non-baryonic matter with itself, its mass and its interactions with ordinary matter which all affect the details of the cosmic microwave background fluctuation spectrum and confirmed other measurements of the amount of dark matter in the universe.


All these lines of evidence seem to confirm that galaxies, clusters of galaxies and the universe as a whole contain far more matter than is directly observable, indicating that the unobserved remainder is dark.

Photo: ESA and the PACS Consortium

Spiral Galaxy

What is Dark Energy?


As yet, no scientist can give the answer to this fundamental question. We do not know what the nature of dark energy is, and unveiling this mystery will most probably reveal new physics and even might shake modern particle physics to its very foundations. Nevertheless, we have some astronomical knowledge about the properties of dark energy:

  • Dark energy acts as a repulsive force, or anti-gravitation. It is responsible for the acceleration of the Universe today. 
  • Dark energy is probably related to a vacuum energy density or ‘quintessence’ whereby even a vacuum in the physical universe is not empty space but is likely filled with an energy field or elementary particles of some exotic concoction. 
  • Dark energy is distributed homogeneously in the Universe; it does not cluster like matter.

Image: ESA/AOES Medialab

Not So Dark Energy?

An Introduction to the Dark Forces in Our Universe


Having had an initial exploration into scriptural darkness, it is now appropriate to contemplate the current state of cosmological theories on dark phenomena to bring the uninitiated reader to a level of understanding of these forces. This will also help us to determine the prospect of correlating the two disciplines of theology and cosmology in our dark endeavour.


There are cosmological phenomena that currently go by the names of ‘dark matter’ and ‘dark energy’. I call them phenomena since cosmologists believe them to exist but are unable to detect them directly. The basis on which scientists believe them to exist is by their apparent effect on the known physical universe that we can ‘see’, i.e. ‘dark matter’ is the glue that stops galaxies falling apart and ‘dark energy’ is the force that is causing the physical universe to ‘expand’ at an accelerating pace. Since neither of these effects can contravene the Newtonian laws of the known physical universe, there is something rather special operating here demanding the existence of matter and energy outside of our immediate visible universe. Spiral galaxies should fly apart as a result of the centrifugal forces involved in their rotating about their own axis. Dark matter would appear to prevent that occurring. The acknowledgedly flawed Big Bang theory of creation would have created an expanding but decelerating universe if it had been caused by a single enormous explosion consisting of only ‘normal’ matter. Dark energy would appear to prevent that deceleration from occurring. Arguably both phenomena could be likened to gravitational forces of some kind, dark matter being the more traditional attractive gravitation and dark energy representing a repulsive gravitational force such as might be expected from anti-matter or some such exotic material.


Further detail is provided in the following two sub-sections regarding the evidence, in the form of measurable observations, that point to the reality of these two strange phenomena. Whilst there is much scientific data here it is well worth the uninitiated reader skating over the surface of these sub-sections to gain an appreciation of the body of evidence available on the two subjects.

NASA/Courtesy of nasaimages.org

Dark Forces


The Search for Scriptural Darkness


So, naturally enough, this started a search for different scriptures that included the word ‘darkness’ or derivatives thereof.  The following scriptures were identified as significant examples very early on in the quest: 


21   And the people stood afar off, and Moses drew near unto the thick darkness where God was. (Exodus 20)


11   And ye came near and stood under the mountain; and the mountain burned with fire unto the midst of heaven, with darkness, clouds, and thick darkness. (Deuteronomy 4)


12 Then spoke Solomon, The LORD said that he would dwell in the thick darkness. (1Kings 8)


11 He made darkness his secret place; his pavilion round about him were dark waters and thick clouds of the skies. (Psalms 18)


2   Clouds and darkness are round about him: righteousness and judgment are the habitation of his throne. (Psalms 97)


5 Therefore judge nothing before the time, until the Lord come, who both will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and will make manifest the counsels of the hearts: and then shall every man have praise of God. (1Corinthians 4)


11  Or darkness, that thou canst not see; and abundance of waters cover thee. 
12  Is not God in the height of heaven? and behold the height of the stars, how high they are! 
13  And thou sayest, How doth God know? can he judge through the dark cloud? 
14  Thick clouds are a covering to him, that he seeth not; and he walketh in the circuit of heaven. (Job 22)


So from these examples (and there are plenty more in the scriptures) one can reach the swift but startling observation that it appears that God resides in thick darkness and in heaven, so heaven arguably must equate to thick darkness. However, it is noticeable that only one of the above scriptures is from  the New Testament. Further searching in the scriptures of the Greek texts indicated that the portrayal of darkness was much in keeping with the more traditional meaning of the absence of light, or metaphorically sinful behaviour. Another distinct and different portrayal between the two testaments and an indication perhaps that there are two different types of darkness?


6  And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day.  (Jude 1)


30  And cast ye the unprofitable servant into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. (Matthew 25)


Once again there are many examples in the Greek scriptures that portray this image of the darkness.  So it would appear that both heaven and Tartarus/Gehenna equate to darkness.

NASA/Courtesy of nasaimages.org

Then There Was Light

Division of Light from Darkness


This unsuspecting quest for further revelation of the nature of God’s universe began with the early realisation that light and darkness were similarly correlated with day and night in the Genesis account:


5  And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day. (Genesis 1)


Since light and darkness were similarly represented here this started the author to thinking about the prospective scriptural and cosmological implications for darkness rather than those only of light. It seemed that darkness was something different from light rather than merely the absence of light.

NASA/Courtesy of nasaimages.org


Light from Darkness

Darkness


A Brief History of Darkness


This is one for the scientists among you. Amazingly it attempts to demonstrate the correlation between the two biggest cosmological mysteries science has ever faced with God's ancient and holy word. Surely this is a sign of the end times if ever there was one! "The universe is made mostly of dark matter and dark energy," says Saul Perlmutter, leader of the Supernova Cosmology Project headquartered at Berkeley Lab, "and we don't know what either of them is."

One scientifically minded Lords Witness (LW) decided one day that he would review the True Bible Code web-site’s Understanding U234 entitled ‘A Brief History of Light’  (http://www.truebiblecode.com/understanding234.html) little realising what a momentous decision this was going to be. This LW, well known for his ‘difficult’ questioning of his colleagues (and himself), had not even started going through the Monrose Hypothesis and the considerations of the different forms of light (the main thrust of U234) before he realised that there was an even more important power at work in the universe.


For those readers of little scientific knowledge, who may have difficulty plowing through the detail in this paper, a synopsis is provided at the foot of this web-page. It is to be hoped that this will bring the idea, that the edge of the envelope of current cosmological knowledge is compatible with scriptural understandings, to everyone's attention.

NASA/Courtesy of nasaimages.org

A Brief History of Darkness