Jesus Turns Water into Wine In The Wedding At Cana

Jewish Weddings

Jewish Lords' Witness

My Commission

This paper has been commissioned by Gordon, the President of the Lords’ Witnesses. Being Jewish, he thought me well placed to define all the steps of a Jewish wedding and compare the symbolism of each step in that process with God’s covenants for man. He asked me this despite his knowing of my being married to a shiksa!! Anyway, to be frank, I did not relish the task mainly because I could not see its relevance. How wrong could I have been? Working on this exercise has opened my eyes, perhaps, to the real nature of God’s plan for mankind.


Genesis chapters 24 and 29 appear to contain all the literal steps of the Jewish wedding process which are identified below in the body of this document. I provide the steps in the same sequence as the scriptures portray them. Also Ezekiel 16 contains much information regarding Jehovah’s marriage to the nation of Israel which is likewise added to each step as applicable.

Now the LW understanding is that the Holy Spirit is God’s heavenly wife ( This understanding follows the equivalence of Christ’s bride which is expanded upon, again as applicable, through the body of this paper. Consequently I have concentrated on God’s earthly bride, not His heavenly wife. The symbolism of God and His people Israel are compared with a husband and his wife in Isaiah thereby clearly establishing the greater symbolic meaning:

5 For thy Maker {is} thy husband, Jehovah of Hosts {is} His name, And thy Redeemer {is} the Holy One of Israel, 'God of all the earth,' He is called.
6 For, as a woman forsaken and grieved in spirit, Called thee hath Jehovah, Even a youthful wife when she is refused, said thy God. (Isaiah 54 YLT)

John introduces Christ as the bridegroom and himself as best man for the wedding in a second greater meaning for the New Covenant:

28 You yourselves witness to me that I said, I am not the Christ, but that having been sent, I am going before that One.
29 The [one] having the bride is [the] bridegroom. But the friend of the bridegroom, standing and hearing him, rejoices with joy because of the bridegroom's voice. Then this my joy has been fulfilled. (John 3 GLT)

As does Paul although from the position of Christ’s bride:

28 So, husbands ought to love their wives as their [own] bodies, (he loving his wife loves himself),
29 for then no one hated his [own] flesh, but nourishes and cherishes it, even as also the Lord the church.
30 For we are members of His body, of His flesh, and of His bones.
31 "For this, a man shall leave his father and mother, and shall be joined to his wife, and the two shall be one flesh." [Gen. 2:24]
32 The mystery is great, but I speak as to Christ and as to the church. (Ephesians 5 GLT)

So below I have attempted to enumerate all of the 27 steps, by my count, defined in OT scripture for a Hebrew wedding together with their greater meaning equivalents, where applicable, for Jehovah’s marriage to the nation of Israel and that of Christ to the 1NC Saints.

Step 1: The Prospective Bridegroom Goes Looking to Take a Suitable Wife

In Isaac’s case the selection of bride was performed via his father’s slave:

4 But you shall go to my country and to my kindred and take a wife for my son, for Isaac. (Genesis 24 GLT)

Jehovah did His own picking:

1 And Jehovah had said to Abram, Go out from your land and from your kindred, and from your father's house, to the land which I will show you. (Genesis 12 GLT)

As did Jesus:

18 And walking beside the sea of Galilee, Jesus saw two brothers, Simon being called Peter and his brother Andrew, casting a net into the sea; for they were fishers.
19 And He says to them, Come after Me, and I will make you fishers of men. (Matthew 4 GLT)

Step 2: The Bridegroom Would Select His Bride Based on Her Good Looks and His Expectation of Her Virginity

Rebekah was clearly both good looking and a virgin according to the scriptures:

16 And the girl [was] very good of form, a virgin, a man not having known her. And she went down to the well and filled her pitcher and came up. (Genesis 24 GLT)

I think it fair to say that Jacob only actually chose the good-looking Rachel. Whilst scripture does not explicitly declare either Rachel or Leah to be virgins, we are not told to the contrary, so I think it safe to assume that both Jacob's first two brides came into that category of young lady:

17 And the eyes of Leah were weak, and Rachel was beautiful of form and beautiful of appearance. (Genesis 29 GLT)

In His own way Jehovah describes Israel in the way a man might describe the physical attributes of his bride to be:

7 As a myriad, as a field shoot, I have given you, and you are grown and are great. And you come [in] the finest ornaments. [Your] breasts are formed, and [your] hair is grown, yet you [were] naked and bare. (Ezekiel 16 GLT)

However Jehovah’s idea of beauty is something rather deeper than pure good looks:

18 And Abraham shall become a great and powerful nation, and all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him?
19 For I have known him, so that whatever he may command his sons and his house after him, even they may keep the way of Jehovah, to do righteousness and justice; to the intent that Jehovah may bring on Abraham that which He has spoken of him. (Genesis 18 GLT)

As was Jesus’, looking for a faithful bride over the long haul:

16 You have not chosen Me, but I chose you out and planted you, that you should go and should bear fruit, and your fruit remain, that whatever you should ask the Father in My name, He may give you. (John 15 GLT)

Step 3: The Groom Provides a Gift for the Bride

A ring, in particular, would be the primary gift to confirm the marriage:

22 And it happened when the camels had finished drinking, the man took a golden ring, its weighing a half shekel, and two bracelets for her hands, ten of gold their weighing. (Genesis 24 GLT)

God’s gift to Abram was rather more substantial:

2 And I will make of you a great nation. And I will bless you and make your name great; and you will be a blessing.
3 And I will bless those who bless you, and curse the one despising you. And in you all families of the earth shall be blessed. (Genesis 12 GLT)

Once again as was Jesus’,:

38 And Peter said to them, Repent and be baptized, each of you on the name of Jesus Christ to remission of sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. (Acts 2 GLT)

Step 4: Upon Initial Contact It Would be Required That the Groom Finds Out the Bride’s Parentage to Ensure She Comes From an Appropriate Lineage

Abraham’s servant asked Rebekah directly about her parentage:

23 And he said, Whose daughter [are] you? Please tell me, is there room for us to stay in your father's house?
24 And she said to him, I [am] the daughter of Bethuel, the son of Milcah, whom she bore to Nahor. (Genesis 24 GLT)

There is, what appears to me, to be a very strange verse on Israel’s parentage in Ezekiel 16:

3 and say, So says the Lord Jehovah to Jerusalem: Your origin and your birth [is] of the land of Canaan. Your father [was] an Amorite and your mother a Hittite. (Ezekiel 16 GLT)

As we can see from the verse from Genesis 11 below, Israel’s birthplace could be described as being Canaan, as Ezekiel would have it. The origin of Israel’s parents, however, seems to be much more mysterious according to Ezekiel. The best I can contemplate is that Abram lived with Mamre the Amorite with whom he had an alliance (Genesis 14:13) and Ephron the Hittite provided the burial place for Sarah (Genesis 23:10):

 13 And there came one that had escaped, and told Abram the Hebrew; for he dwelt in the plain of Mamre the Amorite, brother of Eshcol, and brother of Aner: and these [were] confederate with Abram. (Genesis 14 KJV)

10 And Ephron was sitting among the sons of Heth. And Ephron the Hittite replied to Abraham in the ears of the sons of Heth, to all those entering the gate of his city, saying,
11 No, my lord, hear me. I have given the field to you; also the cave that [is] in it. I have given it to you. Before the eyes of the sons of my people I have given it to you. Bury your dead. (Genesis 23 GLT)

So perhaps God is stating that He accepted Abram’s relationships with other nations and, despite that, was prepared to accept Israel as His bride. Also, God was very familiar with Abram’s lineage so He clearly approved:

31 And Terah took his son Abram, and Lot, Haran's son, his grandson and his daughter-in-law Sarai, his son Abram's wife. And he went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldeans to go into the land of Canaan. And they came to Haran and lived there. (Genesis 11 GLT)

Likewise, this must also have been the case for Jesus’ selection of His disciples:

21 And going on from there, He saw two other brothers, James the [son] of Zebedee and his brother John in the boat with their father Zebedee, mending their nets. And He called them. (Matthew 4 GLT)

I would have to say, however, that in both the cases of Jehovah’s and Jesus’ marriages the bride’s heritage was likely irrelevant in the choice of bride compared with the spiritual heart condition of both brides as we shall see in the later steps of the wedding process.

Step 5: The Bride Needs to Inform Her Family of the Prospective Marriage

Rebekah went and told her family of her dialogue with Abraham’s servant:

28 And the girl ran and told these things to the house of her mother. (Genesis 24 GLT)

Well I guess when you get the call directly from God, the bride does not exactly have to ask her family’s permission. In Abram’s case scripture does not seem to consider his family as important enough to mention in this context. We are therefore left to muse as to exactly what Abram told the kinsmen he was leaving behind. There is the implication that they were all told but only Lot put his hand up to become the first fruits of God’s proposal:

4 And Abram went out, even as Jehovah had spoken to him. And Lot went with him. And Abram [was] a son of seventy five years when he went out from Haran. (Genesis 12 GLT)

Well I think the calling of the 1NC saints is even more marked regarding the bride’s family's involvement, than in Abram’s case, in that the fishermen’s families did not even get to know before they followed their husband/saviour:

20 And leaving the nets, they immediately followed Him. (Matthew 4 GLT)

Step 6: The Groom is Invited into the Bride’s Family Home

Abraham’s servant was welcomed with open arms into Rebekah’s family home:

29 And Rebekah [had] a brother, his name [being] Laban. And Laban ran out to the man, to the fountain.
30 And it happened when he saw the ring, and the bracelets on his sister's hands, and when he heard his sister's words, Rebekah, saying, So the man spoke to me, then he came to the man and saw him standing by the camels at the fountain.
31 And he said, Come in, blessed of Jehovah! Why are you standing outside? I have prepared the house and a place for the camels. (Genesis 24 GLT)

Given that the bride’s family were hardly involved in the choosing of either God’s or Jesus’ bride, this step appears to be irrelevant, and therefore missing, in the greater meanings. So I am left wondering why this step is so expressly mentioned in the physical literal meaning. I can only think that God expects mankind to respect his family connections as the Law of Moses would have it:

12 Honor your father and your mother, so that your days may be long on the land which Jehovah your God [is] giving to you. (Exodus 20 GLT)

In human terms this is clearly of import. When it comes to the spiritual realm, however, we will all be born again so we will share in a new inheritance:

 3 Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God. (John 3 KJV)

Step 7: The Groom Declares His Status in Life Thereby Confirming His Ability to Support His Bride

Abraham’s servant effectively pre-empted Laban’s even asking the question of the groom’s status in life by offering this information about his master’s estate. Nonetheless I imagine this set the precedent for this step in the Jewish wedding process:

35 And Jehovah has blessed my master much, and he is great. And He has given to him flocks and herds, and silver and gold, and male slaves and slave-girls, and camels and asses.
36 And my master's wife bore a son to my master when she was old, and he has given to him all that [is] his. (Genesis 24 GLT)

Even Jehovah had to present his credentials to the Israelites although the form of His ability to support His bride could not be measured in terms of physical wealth so much as physical and spiritual well-being:

4 You have seen what I did to Egypt; and I bore you on wings of eagles and brought you to Me. (Exodus 19 GLT)

Ditto for Jesus:

24 Truly, truly, I say to you, The [one] who hears My Word, and believes the [One] who has sent Me, has everlasting life, and does not come into judgment, but has passed out of death into life. (John 5 GLT)


Step 8: The Groom Confirms His Expectation of the Bride’s Lineage

Abraham’s servant confirms the importance of his master’s expectations of Isaac’s bride’s family heritage:

37 And my master caused me to swear, saying, You shall not take a wife for my son from the daughters of the Canaanite, in whose land I live.
38 But you shall go to the house of my father and to my family and you shall take a wife for my son. (Genesis 24 GLT)

The lineage of the Israelites was as important to Jehovah as was Isaac’s wife to his father Abram:

6 For you [are] a holy people to Jehovah your God. Jehovah your God has chosen you to be His own treasure out of all the people on the face of the earth.
7 Jehovah did not set His love on you or choose you because you were more in number than any people, for you [were] the fewest of all peoples.
8 But because Jehovah loved you, and because He kept the oath which He swore to your fathers, Jehovah has caused you to go out with a strong hand, and redeemed you from the house of slaves, from the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt. (Deuteronomy 7 GLT)

In regarding the verse from John 3 above from a previous step, we find that physical birth lineage has become irrelevant for Jesus’ bride. This a fundamental step change in that faithfulness towards God’s saving grace is the only criterion for the New Covenant as we will share in a new inheritance:

3 Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God. (John 3 KJV)

Step 9: The Groom Confirms His Understanding that the Bride is a Virgin

Abraham’s servant states his expectation of Rebekah’s virginity to Laban, presumably allowing Rebekah or her family to confirm or deny this expectation:

43 Behold! I stand at the well of water, and when the virgin comes out to draw water, and I say to her, Please let me drink a little water from your pitcher, (Genesis 24 GLT)

Jehovah also considered His people Israel to be His virgin bride:

4 Again I will build you, and you shall be built again, O virgin of Israel. You will again put on your tambourines and go forth in the dance of those making merry. (Jeremiah 31 GLT)

Christ’s marriage to His church of `1NC saints is paralleled in this respect. Here Paul appears to be placing himself in the position of the father of the bride

2 For I am jealous [over] you with a jealousy of God. For I have promised you to one Man, to present [you] a pure virgin to Christ. (2 Corinthians 11 GLT)

Step 10: Jehovah’s Approval of the Bride is a Requirement

Abraham’s servant’s wish of Jehovah’s approval of Rebekah was no doubt academic since I am certain that Jehovah lead him to her:

44 and she says to me, Both you drink and also I will draw for your camels, may she be the woman whom Jehovah has approved for my master's son. (Genesis 24 GLT)

Jehovah clearly needs no approval for His actions with the nation of Israel since there is no higher authority than the Father:

1 Let every soul be subject to higher authorities, for there is no authority except from God, but the existing authorities have been ordained by God. (Romans 13 GLT)

However it would seem that Christ’s bride, the 1NC Saints, does have His Father’s approval, Paul being a prime example:

1 Paul, [an] apostle of Jesus Christ through [the] will of God, to the saints being in Ephesus and faithful in Christ Jesus: (Ephesians 1 GLT)

Step 11: The Groom Asks for the Bride’s Family’s Approval to the Match

Abraham’s servant asks Rebekah’s family in the form of her brother and father, Laban and Bethuel, for their approval:

49 And now, if you are going to do kindness and truth with my master, tell me. And if not, tell me so that I may turn to the right or to the left. (Genesis 24 GLT)

God’s bride, however, would be chosen without regard for, even despite, the bride’s family members’ approval:

1 And Jehovah had said to Abram, Go out from your land and from your kindred, and from your father's house, to the land which I will show you. (Genesis 12 GLT)

As would Jesus’ bride even more pointedly:

26 If anyone comes to Me and does not hate his father, and mother, and wife, and children, and brothers and sisters, and besides, even his [own] life, he cannot be My disciple. (Luke 14 GLT)

Step 12: The Bride’s Family Approve the Match

Rebekah’s family had no objection to her match with Isaac particularly since it came with Jehovah’s blessing:

51 Behold! Rebekah [is] before you, take [her] and go. And let her become the wife of the son of your master, as Jehovah has spoken. (Genesis 24 GLT)

Notwithstanding Abram’s not requiring his family’s approval to follow God, the approval of God the husband to Israel was handed down from generation to generation:

20 And David said to his son Solomon, Be strong and brave, and act. Do not fear, nor be afraid, for Jehovah God, my God, [shall be] with you. He will not fail you nor forsake you until you have finished all the work of the service of the house of Jehovah. (1 Chronicles 28 GLT)

As for the previous step, family approval to become a member of Christ’s bride was expressly not a requirement:

29 And everyone who left houses, or brothers, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for the sake of My name, shall receive a hundredfold, and shall inherit everlasting life. (Matthew 19 GLT)

Step 13: The Groom Provides Gifts or a Price for the Bride and Her Family Thereby Making the Marriage Contract or Covenant

Abraham’s servant certainly did not come up short on providing valuable gifts to Isaac’s prospective bride and her family:

53 And the slave brought out vessels of silver and vessels of gold and garments, and he gave to Rebekah. And he gave precious things to her brother and to her mother. (Genesis 24 GLT)

In lieu of physical gifts, Jacob offered his labour for two periods of seven years each for his wives’ hands. This period may be compared to the service period of a Hebrew slave of six years followed by his freedom (or sabbath of a further year) as described in Exodus 21:2:

2 When you buy a Hebrew slave, he shall serve six years And in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing. (Exodus 21 GLT)

These two periods would be separated by the week of wedding festivities for his marriage to Leah– see later Step:

18 And Jacob loved Rachel, and said, I will serve you seven years for Rachel, your younger daughter. (Genesis 29 GLT)

20 And Jacob served seven years for Rachel; and they were in his eyes like a few days, in his love for her. (Genesis 29 GLT)

27 Fulfill the week of this one and we will also give you this [other] one, for the service which you will serve with me, yet another seven years.
28 And Jacob did so, and he fulfilled the week of this one, and he gave to him his daughter Rachel, to him for a wife. (Genesis 29 GLT)

Jehovah confirms that Israel was His bride by covenant:

8 And I passed by you, and I looked on you, and, behold, your time [was] the time of love. And I spread My skirt over you and covered your nakedness. And I swore to you and entered into a covenant with you, declares the Lord Jehovah. And you became Mine. (Ezekiel 16 GLT)

And the repetition after Israel sinned represents the prophesied new marriage contract or covenant of the 1NC Saints to Christ:

31 Behold, the days come, says Jehovah, that I will cut a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah,
32 not according to the covenant that I cut with their fathers in the day I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt (which covenant of Mine they broke, although I was a husband to them, says Jehovah).
33 But this [shall be] the covenant that I will cut with the house of Israel: After those days, declares Jehovah, I will put My Law in their inward parts, and I will write it on their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people. (Jeremiah 31 GLT)

59 For so says the Lord Jehovah: I will even do with you as you have done, who have despised the oath in breaking the covenant.
60 But I will remember My covenant with you in the days of your youth, and I will raise up to you an everlasting covenant.
61 Then you shall remember your ways and be ashamed, when you shall receive your sisters, the older than you to the younger than you, and I will give them to you for daughters, but not by your covenant.
62 And I, [even] I, will raise up My covenant with you. And you shall know that I [am] Jehovah, (Ezekiel 16 GLT)

18 And in that day I will cut a covenant for them with the beasts of the field, and with the birds of the heavens, and the creepers of the ground. And I will break the bow and the sword, and the battle out of the earth, and I will make them to lie down safely.
19 And I will betroth you to Me forever. Yes, I will betroth you to Me in righteousness, and in judgment, and in mercy, and in compassions.
20 I will even betroth you to Me in faithfulness. And you shall know Jehovah. (Hosea 2 GLT)

Christ gave His blood as the price He paid for His bride:

5 But He was wounded for our transgressions; [He was] bruised for our iniquities; the chastisement of our peace was upon Him; and with His wounds we ourselves are healed. (Isaiah 53 GLT)

Christ Himself also confirms the marriage contract, the new covenant, is to be made:

26 And as they ate, taking the bread and blessing [it], Jesus broke and gave to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is My body.
27 And taking the cup, and giving thanks, He gave to them, saying, Drink all of it.
28 For this is My blood of the New Covenant which concerning many is being poured out for remission of sins. (Matthew 26 GLT)

The acceptance of that gift and therefore agreement to the contract is through baptism:

4 John came baptizing in the wilderness and proclaiming a baptism of repentance for remission of sins.
5 And all the Judean country and those of Jerusalem went out to him, and were all baptized by him in the Jordan River, confessing their sins. (Mark 1 GLT)

Step 14: Faithfulness of the Bride After the Marriage Contract is Agreed is Mandatory

The Law is very strong on the sin of adultery:

23 If there [is] a girl that [is] a virgin, betrothed to a man, and a man finds her in the city, and lies with her,
24 then you shall bring them both out to the gate of that city. And you shall stone them with stones so that they die, the girl because she did not cry out, being in the city; and the man, because he has humbled his neighbor's wife. And you shall put away the evil from among you. (Deuteronomy 22 GLT)

Jehovah likens the faithlessness of the Hebrew nation, His earthly bride, to that of an adulteress through her worship of idols:

8 And I watched. When for all the causes [for] which the apostate Israel committed adultery, I sent her away and I gave the writ of her divorce to her. Yet her treacherous sister Judah did not fear, but she also went and fornicated.
9 And it happened, from the wantonness of her harlotry she defiled the land, and committed adultery with stones and with pieces of wood. (Jeremiah 3 GLT)

I cannot find any references in scripture that clearly refer to a fallen saint or a covenanted bride of Christ who becomes faithful to another God, e.g. Satan. I can only imagine that the circumcision of the bride members’ hearts cannot be undone as cannot the fleshly circumcision:

29 but he [is] a Jew that [is one] inwardly, and circumcision [is] of heart, in spirit, not in letter; of whom the praise [is] not from men, but from God. (Romans 2 GLT)

We could consider that Peter’s denial of Christ was adultery since he was effectively denying that he was a member of Christ's bride. But if classed as adultery then he was surely forgiven since Peter became the rock upon which Christ’s church was built. Please see the section on Peter’s denial of Christ at So I am now of the opinion that, once sealed, saints cannot be unsealed or divorced from Christ. They have come so far in their spirit-fed faith that there is no turning back despite their human frailties. Peter’s denial must prove the point, as does the betrayal by Judas Iscariot. Since Christ clearly knew in advance about both of those compromises, within the ranks of His bride, there could not presumably ever be a circumstance under which a Saint would have been sealed as part of Christ’s bride if, for example, it were already known that a divorce certificate would have to be issued in the case of Judas? Let us examine the case of Judas a little more carefully. Judas was one of the twelve apostles:

2 And the names of the twelve apostles are these: First, Simon who is called Peter and his brother Andrew, James the [son] of Zebedee and his brother John,
3 Philip, and Bartholomew, Thomas, and Matthew the tax-collector, James [the son] of Alpheus, and Lebbaeus, whose last name was Thaddaeus,
4 Simon the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed Him. (Matthew 10 GLT)

He therefore had the power of baptism and presumably must have been baptised by John the Baptist:

2 (though truly Jesus Himself did not baptize, but His disciples), (John 4 GLT)

I can only therefore conject that sealing can only come at a later stage as the marriage consummation. When Judas was sealed is somewhat irrelevant in terms of his unfaithfulness to Christ since Judas was possessed by Satan just prior to the betrayal. Consequently it was not Judas the saint that betrayed his spiritual husband (

Previously we saw that baptism represents the bride’s members’ acceptance of Christ’s gift; see Step 13 above. The sealing is a later step in the process; see Step 25 below.

Step 15: The Groom Asks the Family for Their Approval for Him to Take the Bride Back to His Family Home.

Abraham’s servant asks Rebekah’s family that he takes her back to Abraham’s house:

54 And they ate and drank, he and the men who were with him; and they stayed the night. And they rose up in the morning, and he said, Send me away to my master.
55 And her brother and her mother said, Let the girl stay with us, perhaps ten days. Afterwards she may go.
56 And he said to them, Do not delay me, for Jehovah has prospered my way. Send me away that I may go to my master.
57 And they said, we will call the girl and ask of her mouth. (Genesis 24 GLT)

Because of his service to Laban, Jacob did not get to ask to take his wives with him until some considerable time after the weddings:

25 And it happened when Rachel had borne Joseph, Jacob said to Laban, Send me away so I may go to my own place and to my land.
26 Give my wives and my children, [for] whom I have served you, and let me go. For you know my service with which I have served you. (Genesis 30 GLT)

Whilst seemingly out of sequence compared with Isaac, this does take account of Jacob’s effective slavery to Laban which would allow his freedom after two periods of seven years of service. I suppose the meaning here is that the groom is not free to take his wife back to his own home until his price to the bride’s family has been fully paid.

Clearly Jehovah did not need to ask anyone’s permission to take His bride to the promised land. However, there is the parallel meaning here that the groom will take His bride back to His abode:

8 And I will bring you into the land which I raised My hand to give to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob. And I will give it to you for a possession. I [am] Jehovah! (Exodus 6 GLT)

Ditto for Christ and His bride:

2 In My Father's house are many dwelling places. But if it were not [so], I would have told you. I am going to prepare a place for you! (John 14 GLT)

Step 16: The Family Approve the Marriage Subject to the Elder Daughter(s) Being Married First

Laban establishes the custom to ensure the elder daughters get married off before their younger sisters:

25 And it happened in the morning; behold! She [was] Leah. And he said to Laban, What have you done to me? [Did] I not serve with you for Rachel? And why have you tricked me?
26 And Laban said, It is not done this way in our place, to give the younger before the first-born. (Genesis 29 GLT)

Whilst this is not quite comparable, it would appear that Jehovah picked the eldest of Terah’s sons to form His bride:

27 And these [are] the generations of Terah: Terah fathered Abram, Nahor, and Haran. And Haran fathered Lot. (Genesis 11 GLT)

It would also seem that God is monogamous since He only ever needed to pick one earthly wife to ultimately reach all of mankind:

3 And I will bless those who bless you, and curse the one despising you. And in you all families of the earth shall be blessed. (Genesis 12 GLT)

Whilst again not strictly comparable, Jesus’ disciples’ baptism is transitive so that each spirit generation can baptise the next thereby ensuring that the 'oldest daughter’ is automatically selected as a part of Christ’s bride before the younger. The older baptised will therefore baptise the younger in spiritual terms. Those being baptised after the 144,000 total of 1NC saints has been reached will not be part of Jesus’ bride although the next 14.4 million will be part of Jesus’ household (see Step 19 below for more details):

2 (though truly Jesus Himself did not baptize, but His disciples), (John 4 GLT)

4 And I heard the number of those having been sealed: one hundred forty four thousands, having been sealed out of every tribe of the sons of Israel: (Revelation 7 GLT)

Step 17: The Bride’s Family Agree to the Bride’s Going with the Groom to His Home Subject to Agreement From the Bride Herself

Rebekah’s brother and mother agreed to her going with Abraham’s servant so long as she, herself, was willing:

57 And they said, we will call the girl and ask of her mouth.
58 And they called Rebekah and said to her, Will you go with this man? And she said, I will go. (Genesis 24 GLT)

Now in Jacob’s case, Laban requested Jacob to stay with him which he did. Some time afterwards however, with God’s request, he decides to take his whole household back to the land of his father. Could this represent the greater meaning of Christ taking His whole earthly family back to His Father’s house without asking for anyone’s permission except the bride herself?

27 And Laban said to him, Please, if I have found favor in your eyes, stay. I have seen omens, also Jehovah has blessed me because of you. (Genesis 30 GLT)

3 And Jehovah said to Jacob, Go back to the land of your fathers and to your kindred. And I will be with you.
4 And Jacob sent and called for Rachel and for Leah to come to the field, to his flocks. (Genesis 31 GLT)

God confirms that He brought His bride, Israel, to His (spiritual) home and tells them to keep His marriage covenant, the Law of Moses, which the elders are asked to put before the people. If one considers Moses to be the bride’s father then he is clearly happy to put the request before the bride:

4 You have seen what I did to Egypt; and I bore you on wings of eagles and brought you to Me.
5 And now if listening you will listen to My voice, and will keep My covenant, you shall become a special treasure to Me above all the nations, for all the earth [is] Mine.
6 And you shall become a kingdom of priests for Me, a holy nation. These [are] the words which you shall speak to the sons of Israel.
7 And Moses came and called the elders of the people. And he put all these words before them which Jehovah commanded him.

In stark contrast, Jesus relied on no such nicety as to ask for His bride to go with him via her families' approval:

17 And Jesus said to them, Come after Me, and I will make you to become fishers of men. (Mark 1 GLT)

Step 18: The Bride Needs to Agree to Go to the Groom’s Father’s Home

Isaac’s bride, Rebekah was asked for her hand on behalf of Isaac to which she agreed:

58 And they called Rebekah and said to her, Will you go with this man? And she said, I will go. (Genesis 24 GLT)

The nation of Israel agreed to go with Jehovah:

7 And he took the book of the covenant, and read in the ears of the people. And they said, We will do all that Jehovah has spoken, and we will hear. (Exodus 24 GLT)

If we accept that baptism is the receiver’s own free choice to follow Christ as husband, then there can be no better example in scripture than that of the eunuch baptised by Philip:

36 And as they were going along the highway they came on some water. And the eunuch said, Behold, water! What prevents me to be baptized?
37 And Philip said, If you believe from all the heart, it is lawful. And answering he said, I believe Jesus Christ to be the Son of God.
38 And he commanded the chariot to stand still. And both went down into the water, both Philip and the eunuch; and he baptized him. (Acts 8 GLT)

Step 19: The Bride’s Family Additionally Provide the Gift of a Slave-Girl for the Bride as Part of the Marriage Contract

Laban gave both his daughters slave-girls, as part of their dowry, who were to become part of their new households:

24 And Laban gave to her Zilpah, his slave-girl, to his daughter Leah as a slave. (Genesis 29 GLT)

29 And Laban gave his slave-girl Bilhah to his daughter Rachel, to her for a slave-girl. (Genesis 29 GLT)

Servants in the nation state of Israel were also treated by God as part of His bride’s household:

39 And when your brother becomes poor with you, and he has been sold to you, you shall not lay on him the service of a slave.
40 He shall be with you as a hireling, as a tenant he shall be with you; he shall serve with you until the year of jubilee;
41 then he shall go out from you, he and his sons with him, and shall return to his family; he shall even return to the possession of his father.
42 For they are My servants, whom I have brought out from the land of Egypt; they shall not be sold [with] the sale of a slave. (Leviticus 25 GLT)

The Lords’ Witnesses understand that for each 1st New Covenant Saint, who is part of Jesus’ bride, there are 100 servants categorised as Heavenly Lords subservient to that Saint. This is a greater meaning of Genesis 29:24 above. See True Bible Code website at and

Step 20: The Bride Partakes of the Ritual Cleansing Bath

Jewish custom dictates that the bride is physically cleansed by the ritual Mikveh bath before the wedding (ref. Whilst I can find no reference to this in Genesis 24 or 29 for individual Hebrew brides, there are references in the Law to the cleansing of women from their regular menstrual flow. By implication, the Hebrew bride should be cleansed a minimum of seven days since her last flow prior to her marriage consummation:

19 And if a woman's issue in her flesh is a flow of blood, she shall be in her impurity seven days; and whoever touches her shall be unclean until the evening. (Leviticus 15 GLT)

28 And if she is cleansed of her issue then she shall number to herself seven days, and after that she shall be clean. (Leviticus 15 GLT)

This process of the cleansing of the bride prior to the marriage is well established for both Jehovah’s and Jesus’ earthly brides respectively:

9 And I washed you with water; I washed away your blood from you, and I anointed you with oil. (Ezekiel 16 GLT)

25 Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church and gave Himself up on its behalf,
26 that He might sanctify it, cleansing [it] by the washing of the water in [the] Word,
27 that He might present it to Himself [as] the glorious church, not having spot or wrinkle, or any such things, but that it be holy and without blemish. (Ephesians 5 GLT)

Step 21: The Bride Gets Dressed for the Occasion

Neither Genesis 24 or 29 contain any mention of bridal dress for either Isaac’s or Jacob’s weddings. The scriptures, however, do wax lyrical about the bridal dresses of the nation of Israel and of the 1st New Covenant Saints. Despite this apparent omission, Jeremiah does make mention of a bride’s attire. Now, whilst this account is talking about the nation of Israel, I believe that the comparison in this verse must be with a literal singleton fleshly human female bride:

32 Can a virgin forget her finery, a bride her attire? Yet My people have forgotten Me days without number. (Jeremiah 2 GLT)

Isaiah makes symbolic mention of a bride’s wearable ornaments in the context of the nation of Israel. However, this account makes more than a passing reference to the greater meaning of the 1st New Covenant Saints also:

18 Lift up your eyes all around and see! They all gather [and] come to you. [As] I live, says Jehovah, you shall surely wear all of them as an ornament, and bind them on as a bride. (Isaiah 49 GLT)

Once again Ezekiel 16 describes Israel the bride, this time in terms of her bridal adornment:

10 And I dressed you [with] embroidered work, and I shod you [with] dugong [sandals]. And I wrapped you in fine linen, and I covered you [with] silk.
11 And I adorned you [with] ornaments, and I put bracelets on your hands and a chain on your neck.
12 And I put a ring on your nose and earrings on your ears and a crown of beauty on your head.
13 And you were adorned with gold and silver. And your clothing [was] fine linen and silk and embroidered work. Fine flour and honey and oil you ate. And you were very, very beautiful. And you advanced to regal estate.
14 And your name went out among the nations, because of your beauty, for it [was] perfect by My splendor which I had set on you, declares the Lord Jehovah. (Ezekiel 16 GLT)

Revelation 21 makes a couple of references to a bride, firstly to the New Jerusalem which is adorned for her husband, the New Jerusalem being the symbolism of the 1NC Saints:

2 And I, John, saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of Heaven from God, having been prepared as a bride, having been adorned for her Husband. (Revelation 21 GLT)

9 And one of the seven angels came to me, he having the seven bowls being filled with the seven last plagues, and spoke with me, saying, Come, I will show you the bride, the wife of the Lamb.
10 And he carried me in spirit on to a great and high mountain, and showed me the great city, holy Jerusalem, coming down out of Heaven from God, (Revelation 21 GLT)

Revelation 19 confirms the New Jerusalem is indeed the `1NC Saints:

7 Let us rejoice and let us exult, and we will give glory to Him, because the marriage of the Lamb came, and His wife prepared herself.
8 And it was given to her that she be clothed in fine linen, pure and bright; for the fine linen is the righteousnesses of the saints. (Revelation 19 GLT)

Step 22: The Family Send Out Invitations to the Wedding Feast

Genesis 29 seems to make light of the wedding feast by issuing the invitations and making the feast all in one verse:

22 And Laban gathered all the men of the place and made a feast. (Genesis 29 GLT)

Anyway, just to make the point, wedding invitations were issued for the celebrations of another Hebrew wedding that followed some centuries later:

1 And on the third day a marriage took place in Cana of Galilee, and the mother of Jesus was there.
2 And Jesus and His disciples also were invited to the marriage. (John 2 GLT)

Arguably the first record of Jehovah’s marriage to the nation of Israel was His covenant established with Noah. Whilst it is questionable whether entry into the Ark represented the wedding feast, certainly Noah’s whole family together with the animals were invited to attend and with plenty of food to celebrate:

18 And I will establish My covenant with you. And you shall come into the ark, you and your sons and your wife and your sons' wives with you.
19 And you shall bring into the ark two of every kind, of every living thing of all flesh, to keep alive with you; they shall be male and female;
20 from the birds according to its kind, and from the cattle according to its kind, from every creeping thing of the ground according to its kind. Two from each shall come in to you to keep alive.
21 And take for yourself all food that is eaten, and gather to yourself. And let it be for you and for them for food. (Genesis 6 GLT)

Matthew 22 provides a parable of a marriage guest invitation list likened to the calling from God to judgement. Presumably this covers the remnant of mankind who are not brides. Some will respond and others will not. Those who do not respond face the second death. Presumably the first batch of invitees represented the Jews, the second batch the gentiles:

1 And answering, Jesus again spoke to them in parables, saying:
2 The kingdom of Heaven is compared to a man, a king, who made a wedding feast for his son.
3 And he sent his slaves to call those being invited to the wedding feast, but they did not desire to come.
4 Again, he sent other slaves, saying, Tell the ones invited, Behold, I have prepared my supper; my oxen, and the fatlings [are] killed, and all things ready; come to the wedding feast.
5 But not caring they went away, one to [his] own field, and one to [his] trading.
6 And the rest, seizing his slaves, insulted and killed [them].
7 And hearing, the king became angry. And sending his armies, [he] destroyed those murderers and burned their city.
8 Then he said to his slaves, Indeed, the wedding feast is ready, but those invited were not worthy.
9 Then go onto the exits of the highways and call to the wedding feast as many as you may find.
10 And going out into the highways, those slaves gathered all, as many as they found, both evil and good. And the wedding feast was filled with reclining guests. (Matthew 22 GLT)

But this is not the end of the guest-list vetting:

11 And the king coming in to look over those reclining, he saw a man there not having been dressed [in] a wedding garment.
12 And he said to him, Friend, how did you come in here, not having a wedding garment? But he was speechless.
13 Then the king said to the servants, Binding his feet and hands, take him away and throw [him] out into the outer darkness. There shall be weeping and gnashing of the teeth.
14 For many are called, but few chosen. (Matthew 22 GLT)

I can only liken the requirement for a wedding garment to the requirement for an open and humble heart. Since good and bad were in the second batch of invitees, this would explain the undressed guest turning up at the feast at all only to get ejected from the celebrations. I can only think that these guests represent the brides' hand-maidens and not the whole of mankind since 'few are chosen'.

Step 23: The Bride’s Family Celebrate the Match with a Wedding Feast

Genesis 29 establishes the tradition of celebrating the wedding with a feast:

22 And Laban gathered all the men of the place and made a feast. (Genesis 29 GLT)

Apart from the guests invited to Noah’s celebration, as indicated in the previous Step, it is fairly clear that there were not any invitations issued for Israel’s wedding celebrations outside of the nation’s people and their households. The purpose of that marriage was, arguably, to separate the nation of Israel from all the other hostile nations around them. There would have been no friendly bystanders to attend that marriage:

4 Do not say in your heart, when Jehovah your God thrusts them out from before you, saying, Jehovah has brought me in to possess this land for my righteousness. But say, Jehovah drives them out from before you because of the wickedness of those nations. (Deuteronomy 9 GLT)

This was even more starkly the case in Noah’s time:

4 For after seven more days I will cause it to rain on the earth forty days and forty nights and will wipe away every living substance that I have made from off the face of the earth. (Genesis 7 GLT)

The Sabbath rest day was time for the nation of Israel to spend with God and, arguably, is like the married couple spending time together in the wedding chamber; perhaps like the wedding feast celebrated on a weekly basis. This includes the bride’s slaves and other guests:

10 and the seventh day [is] a sabbath to Jehovah your God; you shall not do any work, you, and your son, and your daughter, your male slave and your slave-girl, and your livestock, and your stranger who [is] in your gates. (Exodus 20 GLT)

Revelation refers to the marriage supper:

9 And he says to me, Write: Blessed [are] the ones having been called to the supper of the marriage of the Lamb. And he says to me, These Words of God are true. (Revelation 19 GLT)

Step 24: The Bride Then Goes to the Groom’s Family Home with Him

Rebekah and her slave girls went with Abraham’s slave to his family home:

61 And Rebekah and her young women rose up, and they rode on the camels and went after the man. And the slave took Rebekah and went. (Genesis 24 GLT)

Whilst Canaan could not really be described as God’s home, it was the closest Abram would get to it

5 And Abram took his wife Sarai, and his brother's son, Lot, and all their substance that they had gained, and the persons they had gotten in Haran. And they went out to go into the land of Canaan. And they came into the land of Canaan. (Genesis 12 GLT)

Jehovah takes Israel to the promised land:

2 I [am] Jehovah your God, who has brought you out from the land of Egypt, from the house of bondage. (Exodus 20 GLT)

Jesus will take His bride to His Father’s house:

29 But I say to you, I will not at all drink of this fruit of the vine after this until that day when I drink it new with you in the kingdom of My Father (Matthew 26 GLT)

John confirms that Jesus is preparing His Father’s house for His new bride:

2 In My Father's house are many dwelling places. But if it were not [so], I would have told you. I am going to prepare a place for you!
3 And if I go and prepare a place for you, I am coming again and will receive you to Myself, that where I am you may be also. (John 14 GLT)

Step 25: The Groom Takes the Bride into his Tent to Consummate the Marriage.

Isaac set the precedent for the marriage consummation with Rebekah:

67 And Isaac brought her into his mother Sarah's tent, and took Rebekah, and she became his wife; and he loved her: and Isaac was comforted after his mother's [death]. (Genesis 24 KJV)

Which precedent Jacob followed avidly:

23 And it happened in the evening, he took his daughter Leah and brought her to him; and he went in to her. (Genesis 29 GLT)

30 And he also went in to Rachel, and he also loved Rachel more than Leah. And he served with him yet another seven years. (Genesis 29 GLT)

I have found it very difficult to find any scriptures that refer to Jehovah’s marriage consummation with Israel. There seem to be no bible commentators that I have come across that really seem to have looked into this rather important aspect of that particular marriage. The best example I can find is from the early formation of Israel, as one might expect, when Jehovah provided Abraham and Sarah with their son, Isaac, to continue the blood-line of the young nation state:

1 And Jehovah visited Sarah as He had said. And the Lord did to Sarah as He had spoken.
2 And Sarah conceived and bore a son to Abraham in his old age, at the time appointed, that which God had spoken with him.
3 And Abraham called the name of the son who was born to him, whom Sarah had borne to him, Isaac. (Genesis 21 GLT)

This consummation of the Nation of Israel was then recalled in the birth of Christ:

24 And being aroused from sleep, Joseph did as the angel of [the] Lord commanded him, and took his wife,
25 and did not know her until she bore her son, the First-born. And he called His name Jesus. (Matthew 1 GLT)

Now Paul’s first letter to the church in Corinth clearly indicates that the 1NC Saints, who he is addressing in that congregation, had already been consummated in their marriage to Christ at that time:

15 Do you not know that your bodies are members of Christ? Then taking the members of Christ, shall I make [them] members of a harlot? Let it not be!
16 Or do you not know that he being joined to a harlot is one body? For He says, "The two [shall be] into one flesh." [Gen. 2:24]
17 But the [one] being joined to the Lord is one spirit. (1 Corinthians 6 GLT)

So the question arises: ‘What was the act of consummation that brought them to that state?’. Going back a few verses in the same letter, Paul indicates that some were sinners that were washed in the spirit so that they could be reborn as virgins fit for their marriage to Christ beforehand:

11 And some were these things, but you were washed, but you were sanctified, but you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and in the Spirit of our God. (1 Corinthians 6 GLT)

In preparing the 1NC Saints as described above, the definition of the consummated marriage would appear to be their oneness with the Holy Spirit:

19 Or do you not know that your body is a sanctuary of [the] Holy Spirit in you, which you have from God, and you are not of yourselves? (1 Corinthians 6 GLT)

Consequently, I can only consider that the actual act of consummation of the 1NC Saints is their sealing by the Holy Spirit which they themselves facilitated by having their own spiritual hearts open to Christ thereby becoming one with our Lord:

13 in whom also you, hearing the Word of truth, the gospel of your salvation, in whom also believing you were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise, (Ephesians 1 GLT)

I think the following verses are further evidence that sealing with the Holy Spirit represents 1NC consummation, the earlier step of baptism being acceptance of Christ’s gift:

14 And the apostles in Jerusalem hearing that Samaria had received the Word of God, they sent Peter and John to them,
15 who going down prayed concerning them so that they may receive [the] Holy Spirit.
16 For He had not yet fallen on any one of them, but they were only being baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.
17 Then they laid hands on them, and they received [the] Holy Spirit. (Acts 8 GLT)9

Step 26: The Maidenhood of the Bride Must be Proven

The Law of Moses dictated that a bride must be a virgin prior to her marriage, on pain of death, fornication being a capital offence. Failure of the virginity test would effect an annulment of the marriage and the death penalty for the bride. The consummation evidence would be kept by the bride’s father to prove a marriage good:

17 And, behold, he has laid shameful charges, saying, I have not found in your daughter the tokens of virginity. And yet [see] these tokens of my daughter's virginity. And they shall spread the garment before the elders of the city. (Deuteronomy 22 GLT)

20 But if this thing is true [that] tokens of virginity have not been found for the girl,
21 then they shall bring out the girl to the door of her father's house. And the men of her city shall stone her with stones, and she shall die; for she has done folly in Israel, to commit fornication in her father's house. And you shall put away the evil from among you. (Deuteronomy 22 GLT)

It is therefore arguable that the blood sprinkled on the Jewish people was the sign of the Hebrew nation’s virginity and faithfulness after their agreement to the Book of the Covenant, which represented the acceptance of God’s consummation of His people:

8 And Moses took the blood and sprinkled on the people, and said, Behold, the blood of the covenant which Jehovah has cut with you concerning these words. (Exodus 24 GLT)

So, in this symbolism the Egyptian nation were treated by God as fornicators, worshipping false gods before Jehovah. While a man could have several wives, a wife could have only one husband. This is true for mankind (
Holy Matrimony) and for God:

3 You shall not have any other gods before Me. (Exodus 20 GLT)

The question of the bride’s virginity clearly came up even in the case of Jesus’ earthly mother:

18 And of Jesus Christ, the birth was thus: For his mother Mary having been betrothed to Joseph, before their coming together she was found to have conceived from the Holy Spirit,
19 and Joseph her husband being righteous, and not willing to make her an example, did wish privately to send her away.
20 And on his thinking of these things, lo, a messenger of the Lord in a dream appeared to him, saying, 'Joseph, son of David, thou mayest not fear to receive Mary thy wife, for that which in her was begotten {is} of the Holy Spirit, (Matthew 1 YLT)

Firstly we have the betrothal, the promise to marry. Then we have the test of the bride’s virginity. Ironically Mary was found to be pregnant albeit via the Holy Spirit. The establishment of this would normally be through their initial sexual intercourse, the consummation of the marriage, which would cause a blood flow from the bride thus proving her virginity. At this point the marriage would be confirmed with no grounds for a divorce. The Holy Spirit’s consummation with Mary is the finale of God’s marriage to the Israel nation.

It is also arguable that Christ provided His blood, not only as a marriage gift but also in lieu of His bride’s inevitable loss of virginity through living this life. Jesus’ brings His bride back to a virginal state fit for a proper marriage in God’s eyes:

8 but God commends His love to us in [this], that we being yet sinners, Christ died for us.
9 Much more then, being justified now by His blood, we shall be saved from the wrath through Him.
10 For if [while] being enemies we were reconciled to God through the death of His Son, much more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by His life; (Romans 5 GLT)

25 Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church and gave Himself up on its behalf,
26 that He might sanctify it, cleansing [it] by the washing of the water in [the] Word,
27 that He might present it to Himself [as] the glorious church, not having spot or wrinkle, or any such things, but that it be holy and without blemish. (Ephesians 5 GLT)

Step 27: Faithfulness of the Bride (and the Groom) After the Wedding is Mandatory

As per the previous step, the Law of Moses dictates that a bride must not commit adultery after her marriage on pain of death to both guilty parties, adultery being a capital offence:

22 If a man is found lying with a woman married to a husband, then they shall both of them die, the man that lay with the woman, and the woman. And you shall put away the evil from Israel. (Deuteronomy 22 GLT)

Adultery of a nation is described in Ezekiel 16:

15 But you trusted in your beauty, and [you] prostituted [yourself] because of your name, and poured out your fornications on all who passed by; it was to him!
16 And you took from your clothes and made for you high places of various colors, and fornicated on them, [such as] had not come, nor shall be.
17 And you have taken beautiful things of My gold and of My silver, which I had given to you, and [you] made images of males, and fornicated with them. (Ezekiel 16 GLT)

By comparison, I do not think there can be any possible adultery from the saints. God will know of any prospective adultery beforehand, so it would be disingenuous in the extreme for the Holy Spirit to seal a future adulterous saint:

4 even as He elected us in Him before [the] foundation of [the] world, for us to be holy and without blemish before Him in love,
5 predestinating us to adoption through Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of His will, (Ephesians 1 GLT)

Also adultery, being a capital offence, would also effectively annul the marriage for the faithful party. Apart from a purely human marriage, I think we can assume that any possible adultery would be an act of the bride not of Jehovah or Jesus!


All of God’s dealings with mankind over the millennia have represented the state into which He wishes us all to attain during His Kingdom reign. All is represented through the sanctity of a properly conducted human marriage. The joining together of two fleshly beings symbolises the prospective spiritual joining with God through His Son.

In writing this paper one of the realisations that has struck me, with some considerable force, is that our God is far more like us than I previously could have imagined. Consideration of the intimacy and pleasure of being one with another human being in the wedding bedroom chamber is, perhaps, where that realisation first hit me. God wishes to have that level of loving intimacy with each and every one of us. The glory of the Kingdom to come, and that which may be even beyond that, I find hard to imagine. I, nonetheless, look forward to that time more and more fervently with each passing day. Amen.

                                                       Hebrew Wedding – Addendum 1


Shortly after publishing the above original paper on the structure of the Hebrew wedding the LW President, Gordon, asked me where the steps were to put on and remove the bridal veil. Although I had seen the small reference to a veil in the OT wedding scriptures, I had to admit that I had not considered this to be a significant step in the process. After very little debate, I rapidly came to the view that this might actually be a rather substantial part of the process so hence my writing of this addendum to include these apparently vital steps.

The scripture that I originally ignored on this subject was of Rebekah’s forthcoming marriage to Isaac:

65 And she said to the slave, Who [is] this man walking in the field to meet us? And the slave said, It [is] my master. And she took the veil and covered herself. (Genesis 24 GLT)

The above scripture does not appear in my original paper but if it did it would occupy the new ‘Step 24A: Putting on the Veil’ appearing between the bride leaving for the groom’s home and the consummation of the marriage. I can only believe that the veil acted as the functional equivalent of an engagement ring today in terms of its being a sign that the bride is off limits for any other suitors until her marriage consummation, when she would cease to be an eligible virgin. This therefore acts as a protection for the groom that the virgin, that he selected to be his bride, has remained a virgin up to the point of entering his marriage tent. The reason I missed this step is that there the matter seemed to rest for me, i.e. there was no removal of the veil later on in Genesis 24 so there were no apparent dots for me to join up! I have had to remind myself of the power of every single word in scripture. That veil was put on for a purpose that was not intended to be ignored by yours truly!

I then had to go to Genesis 29 to make some semblance of sense of both the veil and of Jacob’s not recognising his new bride Leah until the morning after their consummation:

23 And it happened in the evening, he took his daughter Leah and brought her to him; and he went in to her.
24 And Laban gave to her Zilpah, his slave-girl, to his daughter Leah as a slave.
25 And it happened in the morning; behold! She [was] Leah. And he said to Laban, What have you done to me? [Did] I not serve with you for Rachel? And why have you tricked me? (Genesis 29 GLT)

Clearly Jacob did not recognise Leah except if, one imagines, she had been wearing a veil when Laban brought her to him. Up to that point, Rachel must have been wearing the veil for some time, after making the marriage contract, and then Leah put it on prior to consummation to hide her identity to Jacob going into the marriage tent. It was only after consummation, when the bride was no longer a virgin awaiting the consummation, that the veil comes off to mark the stage of her becoming a fully fledged married woman. We can only suppose that no conversation took place between the ‘happy’ couple on their wedding night less the deception be discovered prior to the marriage being consummated. So we then have the second new step: ‘ Step 25A: Removal of The Bridal Veil’.

We now need to look for the equivalence in Jehovah’s marriage to Israel. For the nation of Israel, much is made of the veil that separated the people from the Holy of Holies:

33 And you shall hang the veil under the hooks. And you shall bring the ark of the testimony there inside to the veil. And the veil shall divide for you between the sanctuary and the Holy of Holies. (Exodus 26 GLT)

As if even this is not enough, Moses wore his own personal veil outside of the Holy of Holies before and after he went in to speak directly to Jehovah. Perhaps this was a sign to the nation that Moses was Jehovah's chosen leader:

33 And Moses finished speaking with them, and he put a veil on his face.
34 And as Moses came in before Jehovah to speak with Him, he took off the veil until he went out. And he would go out and speak to the sons of Israel that which he was commanded.
35 And the sons of Israel would see the face of Moses, that the skin of Moses' face had become luminous. And Moses would put back the veil on his face until he went in to speak with Him. (Exodus 34 GLT)

Apart from Moses, only the priests were allowed to enter within the veil albeit after much purification:

11 And Aaron shall bring the bull of the sin offering which [is] his own, and shall atone for himself, and for his house, and shall kill the bull of the sin offering which [is] his own.
12 And he shall take a censer full of coals of the fire from off the altar before Jehovah, and his hands full of fragrant perfumes beaten small, and bring [it] within the veil. (Leviticus 16 GLT)

Priests were not allowed beyond the veil if they had any kind of blemish:

21 No man of the seed of Aaron the priest in whom there is a blemish shall come near to offer the fire offerings of Jehovah; a blemish is in him; he shall not come near to offer the bread of his God.
22 He shall eat of the bread of his God, of the most holy things, and of the holy things.
23 But he shall not enter into the veil, and he shall not draw near to the altar; for a blemish is in him; and he shall not pollute My sanctuary; for I [am] Jehovah who sanctifies them. (Leviticus 21 GLT)

Whilst this is not all completely comparable to a wedding tent it does nonetheless demonstrate the intimate relationship that existed between Israel’s leader and priesthood with Jehovah and could be compared with that existing between groom and bride in the marriage tent. It also parallels the protection of the groom from a less than virginal bride by the protection of Jehovah from human imperfection.

Let us now look at the 1NC Saints version of their marriage to Christ with regard to the veil. Firstly we find that at the point of Christ’s death we effectively have the above-mentioned temple veil torn in two thereby revealing the Holy of Holies:

51 And, behold! The veil of the temple was torn into two from above as far as below. And the earth quaked, and the rocks were sheared!
52 And the tombs were opened, and many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep were raised.
53 And coming forth out of the tombs after His resurrection, [they] entered into the holy city and were revealed to many. (Matthew 27 GLT)

38 And the veil of the Holy Place was torn into two, from top to bottom. (Mark 15 GLT)

45 And the sun was darkened, and the veil of the Holy Place was torn in the middle. (Luke 23 GLT)

So it would seem that the veil, put in place originally for Jehovah’s marriage to the Nation of Israel, was now being removed to confirm the consummation of the marriage of Jesus to the 1NC Saints. In his second epistle to the Corinthian congregation, Paul waxes lyrical on this topic with particular reference to Moses removing his personal veil when in the presence of Jehovah:

13 And not as "Moses, [who] put a veil over his face," for the sons of Israel not to gaze at the end of the [thing] being done away. [Ex. 34:35]
14 But their thoughts were hardened, for until the present [time] the same veil remains on the reading of the Old Covenant, not being unveiled, that it is being done away in Christ.
15 But until today, when Moses is being read, a veil lies on their heart.
16 But whenever it turns to [the] Lord, the veil is taken away. [Ex. 34:34]
17 And the Lord [is] the Spirit; and where the Spirit of [the] Lord [is], there [is] freedom.
18 But we all with [our] face having been unveiled, having beheld the glory of [the] Lord in a mirror, are being changed [into] the same image from glory to glory, as from [the] Lord Spirit. (2 Corinthians 3 GLT)

The message here from Paul would seem to confirm that removal of the veil represents the consummation of the marriage between Jesus as groom with His bride, the 1NC Saints. He provided further confirmation to the Hebrew congregation:

19 which we have as an anchor of the soul, both certain and sure, and entering into the inner [side] of the veil, [Lev. 16:12] (Hebrews 6 GLT)

2 For the first tabernacle was prepared, in which [was] both the lampstand and the table, and the setting out of the loaves, which is called holy.
3 But behind the second veil [is] a tabernacle, being called Holy of Holies, (Hebrews 9 GLT)

19 Having therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of Jesus,
20 By a new and living way, which he hath consecrated for us, through the veil, that is to say, his flesh;
21 And [having] an high priest over the house of God; (Hebrews 10 KJV)

So it would appear that, as a result of my ignoring the original OT throwaway comment on Rebekah’s bridal veil, I missed this massive understanding. The bridal veil relates to the consummation of the marriages of Jehovah to Israel and the progression from the old marriage covenant to that of Christ and His new marriage covenant to the 1NC Saints. The Holy Spirit was not going to let me miss that one for very long! Amen.

                                         The Hebrew Wedding - Addendum 2

 Some considerable time after writing this original paper a certain scripture, that I had not previously considered, came to my attention:

5 When a man has taken a new wife, he shall not go out to war, and he shall not be given any thing [to do]. He shall be free at his own house for one year, and shall gladden his wife whom he has taken. (Deuteronomy 24 GLT)

So, it would appear that a newlywed Hebrew husband cannot go to war or work for one year after the marriage. I raised this scripture with our Church President, Gordon, to determine what the parallel meaning to this would be for the marriage between God and Israel and the marriage between Jesus and the 1NC saints. This short addendum is the result.

Now it could be argued that Israel's marriage into God’s Law covenant was consummated after the exodus from Egypt with His agreement with the Children of Israel and its validation with the blood of bulls. According to the TBC Master Chronology this took place on 1513Sivan7 (

6 And Moses took half of the blood, and he put it in basins. And he sprinkled half of the blood on the altar.
7 And he took the book of the covenant, and read in the ears of the people. And they said, We will do all that Jehovah has spoken, and we will hear.
8 And Moses took the blood and sprinkled on the people, and said, Behold, the blood of the covenant which Jehovah has cut with you concerning these words. (Exodus 24 GLT)

The year of Jehovah making his wife Israel rejoice as required now begins. No wars were fought and no complaints about food shortages or quality are recorded until after Pentecost on 1512Sivan8. The war with Amalek in Exodus17 preceded the marriage, so we see that God once again fulfils the requirements of the newly wed Jewish husband in this regard also.

Let us now look at the non-combativeness in the first year of Jesus’ marriage to His bride, the 1NC saints. The first thing to note is that Jesus, as the archangel Michael, did wage war against Satan and his demon horde. The scriptures tell us that He won that war with the result that the opposing forces were thrown down to earth (to possess world and corporate leaders in our understanding).  The Kingdom of Heaven started at this point:

7 And war occurred in Heaven, Michael and his angels making war against the dragon. And the dragon and his angels made war,
8 but they did not have strength, nor yet was place found for them in Heaven.
9 And the great dragon was cast out, the old serpent being called devil, and, Satan; he deceiving the whole habitable world was cast out onto the earth, and his angels were cast out with him.
10 And I heard a great voice saying in Heaven, Now has come the salvation and power and the kingdom of our God, and the authority of His Christ, because the accuser of our brothers is thrown down, the one accusing them before our God day and night. (Revelation 12 GLT)

Now earlier on in the Book of Revelation (not temporally!) we see the 1NC saints being sealed (having their marriage to Jesus consummated) after the demons (aka stars of heaven) were cast down to the earth:

9 And when He opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of those having been slain for the Word of God, and for the witness which they had.
10 And they cried with a great voice, saying, Until when, holy and true Master, do You not judge and take vengeance [for] our blood, from those dwelling on the earth?
11 And there was given to each one a white robe. And it was said to them that they should rest yet a little time, until might be fulfilled also [the number] of their fellow-slaves and their brothers, those being about to be killed, even as they.
12 And I saw when He opened the sixth seal. And behold, a great earthquake occurred. And the sun became black as sackcloth made of hair; and the moon became as blood;
13 and the stars of the heaven fell to the earth, as a fig tree being shaken by a great wind casts its unripe figs. (Revelation 6 GLT)

1 And after these things I saw four angels standing on the four corners of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, that wind should not blow on the earth, nor on the sea, nor on every tree.
2 And I saw another angel coming up from the rising of the sun, having a seal of the living God. And he cried with a great voice to the four angels to whom it was given to them to harm the earth and the sea, saying,
3 Do not harm the earth, nor the sea, nor the trees, until we seal the slaves of our God on their foreheads.
4 And I heard the number of those having been sealed: one hundred forty four thousands, having been sealed out of every tribe of the sons of Israel: (Revelation 7 GLT)

Jesus fought Satan prior to His marriage thereby saving the need to go to war afterwards since no more wars need to be fought after the kingdom of God is established:

4 And He shall judge among the nations and shall rebuke many people. And they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, nor shall they learn war any more. (Isaiah 2 GLT)

Date of Publication of Addendum 2: 13th October 2019