|NASA/Courtesy of nasaimages.org
Division of Light from Darkness
This unsuspecting quest for further revelation of the nature of God’s
universe began with the early realisation that light and darkness were similarly correlated with day and night in the Genesis
5 And God called the light
Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day. (Genesis 1)
Since light and darkness were similarly represented here this started the author to thinking about the prospective scriptural
and cosmological implications for darkness rather than those only of light. It seemed that darkness was something different
from light rather than merely the absence of light.
|Then There Was Light
|NASA/Courtesy of nasaimages.org
The Search for Scriptural Darkness
So, naturally enough, this started a search for different scriptures that included the word ‘darkness’ or derivatives
thereof. The following scriptures were identified as significant examples very early on in the quest:
21 And the people stood afar off, and Moses drew near unto the thick darkness
where God was. (Exodus 20)
11 And ye came near
and stood under the mountain; and the mountain burned with fire unto the midst of heaven, with darkness, clouds, and thick
darkness. (Deuteronomy 4)
12 Then spoke Solomon, The LORD
said that he would dwell in the thick darkness. (1Kings 8)
11 He made darkness his secret place; his pavilion round about him were dark waters and
thick clouds of the skies. (Psalms 18)
2 Clouds and darkness are round about him: righteousness and judgment are the habitation
of his throne. (Psalms 97)
5 Therefore judge nothing before
the time, until the Lord come, who both will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and will make manifest the counsels
of the hearts: and then shall every man have praise of God. (1Corinthians 4)
11 Or darkness, that thou canst not see; and
abundance of waters cover thee.
12 Is not God in the height of heaven? and behold the height
of the stars, how high they are!
13 And thou sayest, How doth God know? can he judge through
the dark cloud?
14 Thick clouds are a covering to him, that he seeth not; and he walketh
in the circuit of heaven. (Job 22)
So from these examples (and there are plenty more in the scriptures) one can reach the swift but startling observation
that it appears that God resides in thick darkness and in heaven, so heaven arguably must equate to thick darkness. However,
it is noticeable that only one of the above scriptures is from the New Testament. Further searching in the scriptures
of the Greek texts indicated that the portrayal of darkness was much in keeping with the more traditional meaning of the absence
of light, or metaphorically sinful behaviour. Another distinct and different portrayal between the two testaments and an indication
perhaps that there are two different types of darkness?
And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under
darkness unto the judgment of the great day. (Jude 1)
30 And cast ye the unprofitable servant into outer darkness: there shall be weeping
and gnashing of teeth. (Matthew 25)
Once again there are many examples in the Greek scriptures that portray this
image of the darkness. So it would appear that both heaven and Tartarus/Gehenna equate to darkness.
|NASA/Courtesy of nasaimages.org
An Introduction to the Dark Forces in
Having had an initial exploration into scriptural darkness, it is now appropriate to contemplate the current state of cosmological
theories on dark phenomena to bring the uninitiated reader to a level of understanding of these forces. This will also help
us to determine the prospect of correlating the two disciplines of theology and cosmology in our dark endeavour.
There are cosmological phenomena that currently go by the names of ‘dark
matter’ and ‘dark energy’. I call them phenomena since cosmologists believe them to exist but are unable
to detect them directly. The basis on which scientists believe them to exist is by their apparent effect on the known physical
universe that we can ‘see’, i.e. ‘dark matter’ is the glue that stops galaxies falling apart and ‘dark
energy’ is the force that is causing the physical universe to ‘expand’ at an accelerating pace. Since neither
of these effects can contravene the Newtonian laws of the known physical universe, there is something rather special operating
here demanding the existence of matter and energy outside of our immediate visible universe. Spiral galaxies should fly apart
as a result of the centrifugal forces involved in their rotating about their own axis. Dark matter would appear to prevent
that occurring. The acknowledgedly flawed Big Bang theory of creation would have created an expanding but decelerating universe
if it had been caused by a single enormous explosion consisting of only ‘normal’ matter. Dark energy would appear
to prevent that deceleration from occurring. Arguably both phenomena could be likened to gravitational forces of some kind,
dark matter being the more traditional attractive gravitation and dark energy representing a repulsive gravitational force
such as might be expected from anti-matter or some such exotic material.
Further detail is provided in the following two sub-sections regarding the evidence, in the form of measurable
observations, that point to the reality of these two strange phenomena. Whilst there is much scientific data here it is well
worth the uninitiated reader skating over the surface of these sub-sections to gain an appreciation of the body of evidence
available on the two subjects.
|Not So Dark Energy?
|Image: ESA/AOES Medialab
What is Dark Energy?
As yet, no scientist can give the answer to this fundamental question.
We do not know what the nature of dark energy is, and unveiling this mystery will most probably reveal new physics and even
might shake modern particle physics to its very foundations. Nevertheless, we have some astronomical knowledge about the properties
of dark energy:
- Dark energy acts as a repulsive
force, or anti-gravitation. It is responsible for the acceleration of the Universe today.
- Dark energy is probably related to a vacuum energy density or ‘quintessence’
whereby even a vacuum in the physical universe is not empty space but is likely filled with an energy field or elementary
particles of some exotic concoction.
energy is distributed homogeneously in the Universe; it does not cluster like matter.
|Photo: ESA and the PACS Consortium
What is Dark Matter?
In astrophysics, dark matter is matter that does not emit or reflect
enough electromagnetic radiation (such as light, X-rays and so on) to be detected directly, but whose presence may be inferred
from its gravitational effects on normal visible matter. Among the observed phenomena consistent with the existence of dark
rotational speeds of galaxies and orbital velocities of galaxies in clusters whereby stars revolve around the center
of galaxies at a constant speed over a large range of distances from the center of the galaxy. Thus they revolve much faster
than would be expected if they were in a free Newtonian potential. The galaxy rotation problem is this discrepancy between
the observed rotation speeds of matter in the disk portions of spiral galaxies and the predictions of Newtonian dynamics considering
the visible mass. This discrepancy is currently thought to betray the presence of dark matter that permeates the galaxy and
extends into the galaxy's halo.
- Gravitational lensing of background objects by galaxy clusters such as the Bullet cluster.
This is the effect which caused the first direct detection of dark matter by measuring the cosmic astigmatism caused by the
gravitational lensing effect first noted by Albert Einstein some ninety years ago. Light rays from distant galaxies are slightly
deflected by gravity as they pass through and near clumps of dark matter on their way to the Earth. Consequently, the appearance
of a distant galaxy is slightly distorted. In this context the Bullet cluster provides the best evidence yet that dark matter
does truly exist. Behind the observations of the Bullet cluster lies a remarkable bullet-shaped cloud of hot gas produced
by the collision of two galaxy clusters. As they cross each other at 10 million miles per hour, the luminous normal matter
in each interacts with the other and slows down. But the dark matter does not interact at all, passing right through without
disruption. This causes the dark matter to sail ahead, separating each cluster into two components: dark matter in the lead
and luminous matter lagging behind. The dark matter component, was detected indirectly by its gravitational lensing of background
objects. In theories excluding dark matter the lensing would be expected to follow the normal (baryonic) matter. However,
the lensing is strongest in two separated regions near the visible galaxies. This provides support for the idea that most
of the mass in the cluster pair is in the form of collision-less dark matter.
- The temperature distribution of hot gas in galaxies
and clusters of galaxies. A recent study of the X-ray emission of hot gas in a massive cluster of galaxies has
allowed astronomers to determine the distribution of its dark-matter content. The density of dark matter appears to increase
towards the centre of the cluster in agreement with cold-dark-matter predictions. This discovery was based on X-ray measurements
on a regular and undisturbed galaxy cluster called Abell 2029. This cluster is located about a billion light-years from Earth,
and is composed of thousands of galaxies enveloped in a gigantic cloud of hot gas. At the centre is an enormous elliptical
galaxy that is thought to have been formed from the merging of a number of smaller galaxies. Hot gas is held in the cluster
by gravity, but the mass of the galaxies in the cluster is not enough to explain the presence of this gas. Huge amounts of
additional, invisible matter are needed for gravity to balance the pressure of the gas, which is at a temperature of more
than 10 million degrees. This missing mass of unknown nature is considered to be dark matter. It seems the distribution
of hot gas is mainly determined by that of the dark matter, rather than by the distribution of visible matter in the galaxies.
Therefore, by precisely measuring the distribution of X-rays from the hot gas, scientists were able to make the best measurement
yet of the dark-matter distribution in the inner region of a galaxy cluster. The X-ray data show that the dark-matter density
increases smoothly all the way into the central galaxy of the cluster. This agrees with the predictions of cold-dark-matter
matter plays a central role in structure formation whereby it appears that the manner in which galactic structures
grow depends on the amount and type of dark matter present. All viable scientific models of structure formation today are
dominated by cold dark matter.
- The formation of chemical elements in the early stages of the creation of the universe known as Big Bang nucleosynthesis.
Some of the lightest chemical elements in the universe - in particular, deuterium (a heavy isotope of hydrogen), helium-3,
helium-4, and lithium-7 - were created in the early moments of the universe, when the whole universe was hotter than the interior
of a star. The amounts of each of these nuclei that were formed depends critically on the conditions in the early universe
- in particular, the balance between normal baryonic matter (protons and neutrons) and non-baryonic dark matter (neutrinos
and exotic particles). Based on these ratios, astronomers have concluded that, in the universe as a whole, dark matter
outmasses baryonic matter by a factor of almost 10.
- Dark matter has measurable effects on the anisotropy (directional variability) of the cosmic
microwave background. By making accurate measurements of the cosmic microwave background fluctuations, the WMAP
mission has been able to measure the basic parameters of the (admittedly flawed) Big Bang model including the density and
composition of the universe. WMAP measures the density of baryonic (normal) and non-baryonic (dark) matter to an accuracy
of better than 5%. It was also able to determine some of the properties of the non-baryonic matter: the interactions of the
non-baryonic matter with itself, its mass and its interactions with ordinary matter which all affect the details of the cosmic
microwave background fluctuation spectrum and confirmed other measurements of the amount of dark matter in the universe.
All these lines of evidence seem to confirm that galaxies, clusters of galaxies
and the universe as a whole contain far more matter than is directly observable, indicating that the unobserved remainder
|Galactic Assembly Line
|Image: ESA/Hi-GAL Consortium
So going back to the earlier sections of this paper, it is beginning to look as if the dark matter and/or energy
in our universe may actually be described as the abode of spiritual creation in the scriptures, i.e. the place where God and
his spiritual sons actually live and from where they can observe and interact with us. If we bear in mind that dark energy
and dark matter together are believed to represent some 96% of the universe’s combined total mass/energy then it starts
to appear that the physical creation which we can observe and of which we are a part was actually a pretty small task compared
with the creation of the heavens. One is tempted to draw an analogy here with the fact that, typically, around 90% of the
volume of an iceberg is hidden under water, and that portion's shape can be difficult to surmise from looking at what
is visible above the surface. We know how dangerous this can be from the fate of man’s proud maritime construction of
the Titanic and its speedy demise care of one of God’s more ‘simple’ creations! Water, whilst being one
of the most abundant and therefore common substances on our planet, nonetheless exhibits a very unusual physical property
in common with very few other compounds: it expands when frozen, i.e. its solid form is less dense than its liquid phase.
Once again this is beginning to sound like a lesson from our Lord trying to teach us that all is not what it seems on the
surface and that pride does indeed come before a fall!
The creation story as recounted in the first verses of Genesis are interesting in this context:
1 In the beginning God
created the heavens and the earth.
2 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness
was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.
And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.
4 And God saw the light, that it
was good: and God divided the light from the darkness. (Genesis 1)
If we equate the spiritual heavens to darkness then the first of God’s creations were dark matter/energy
and the physical matter making up the known universe and the earth. God then divided the light from the darkness. This
was after God created light; Genesis does not explicitly say that darkness was created but it certainly indicates that it
existed ‘upon the face of the deep’. The wording that God divided the light from darkness suggests that
the darkness is not a lack of light but something different from light, e.g. dark matter and/or energy. Therefore rather than
considering this to be a re-creation of light in a visible form as per U234, which tackles the literal meaning of Genesis
1, we are now actually looking at the word symbolic meaning of Genesis 1 which relates to the first creation of physical light
and its being separated from the previously created darkness.
So as we are getting accustomed to, from our deeper studies into the scriptures, things are never what they
seem. Darkness hides the glory of the heavens and Light shines on the inferior physical universe. Not quite the way
we have seen this divide before!! If darkness is where God lives then it cannot lack spiritual light, since he is the
source of all spiritual light. It must be a lack of purely physical light. Question: Why would God intimate that there is
no physical light in heaven? Answer: Because heaven is this dark matter/energy in the universe. The MO of God is that he is
not physically discernable from our senses but we deduce his existence by logic, i.e. through the eyes of our mind, from his
effect on the physical things that we can see. This is precisely how we can discern dark matter/energy.
|Image: ESA/PACS/SPIRE/HOBYS Consortia
Heaven, Hell and the Future of the Universe
Previously we have noted that the Hebrew and Greek scriptures
appear to denote two different types of darkness, the Hebrew version describing where God lives and the Greek version describing
where the demons are incarcerated. Two different scriptural versions of darkness equating perhaps to two different and perplexing
cosmological dark phenomena with, arguably, opposite effects on the physical universe, one of attraction (dark matter) the
other of repulsion (dark energy).
Cosmological measurements show that 70% of the content of the Universe (which comprises mass or energy related by Einstein’s
most famous of equations e=mc2) consists of the so-called dark energy, and 26% of cold dark matter. Ordinary baryonic matter,
in the form of gas and stars etc., only makes up 4%. These numbers could be seen to make interesting reading since dark matter
equates to some 37% of the universe’s total dark energy mass content. This number is not far away from one-third (33%).
Does this number equate to God’s throwing down Satan and a third of the angels to the earth? Did God create dark matter
environments around each physical galaxy within which to imprison them together with the graphic effect of pushing all the
galaxies apart from each other through space expansion via dark energy?
4 And his tail drew the third part of the
stars of heaven, and did cast them to the earth: and the dragon stood before the woman which was ready to be delivered, for
to devour her child as soon as it was born. (Revelation 12)
Further consider Job’s observations on his own prospective death:
21 Before I go whence I shall not return,
even to the land of darkness and the shadow of death;
22 A land of darkness, as darkness
itself; and of the shadow of death, without any order, and where the light is as darkness. (Job 10)
So when Job dies he goes to the land of darkness and of deep shadow. But
does he consider whether he is going to heaven or hell?
But perhaps Tartarus, the angelic prison, pre-figures the establishment of Gehenna coincident with the Kingdom
of God and exists today in either dark matter or energy. Is it not likely to be meaningful that there are two cosmic mysteries,
each with opposing effects on the physical universe one representing good the other evil? Both would be spiritual realms but
with very different qualities:
4 For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to Tartarus,
and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment; (2Peter 2)
6 And the angels which kept not their first estate,
but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day.
12 And the fourth angel
sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars; so as
the third part of them was darkened, and the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night likewise. (Revelation 8)
Could the demons be trapped in the positive gravitational fields
of dark matter closely tied in to individual galaxies whilst the heavenly angels are free to flex their wings and to move
about in an ever-expanding universe within an all-pervading negative gravity field?
12 Yea, the darkness hideth
not from thee; but the night shineth as the day: the darkness and the light are both alike to thee. (Psalms 139)
The above scripture suggests that night and day, darkness and light are
interchangeable to God. According to the Munrose Hypothesis, each creative day consists of an evening and a morning. From
this it is therefore reasonable to assume that each change in the speed of light is also accompanied by a dark change of some
sort. Could this be an increase in the amount of dark energy in the universe and therefore an increase in heaven’s physical
and spiritual influence on the universe? Differing amounts of Dark Energy in the universe could be God’s way of adjusting
the ‘size’ of the universe which could act as a brake or assist for inter-galactic travel v speed of light changes.
I quote from the following web link:
"From the announcements in 1998 and subsequent measurements, we now know that the accelerated expansion of the
universe did not start until sometime in the last 10 billion years," and "The cosmological constant was a vacuum
energy (the energy of empty space) that kept gravity from pulling the universe in on itself," says Linder. "A problem
with the cosmological constant is that it is constant, with the same energy density, pressure, and equation of state over
time. Dark energy, however, had to be negligible in the universe's earliest stages; otherwise the galaxies and all their
stars would never have formed."
It is also interesting
that whilst darkness is portrayed as God’s abode in the Old Testament, as per the examples from the Hebrew scriptures
presented at the beginning of this paper, that the dark forces are portrayed in a very different light (please forgive the
pun) in the Greek Scriptures. Two very different but negative darknesses are described in Matthew and John, one describing
the prospective abode of unfaithful man and secondly the absence of Godliness; or perhaps these are essentially describing
the same state or condition?
12 But the children of the kingdom shall be cast out into outer
darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. (Matthew 8)
4 by means of him was life, and the life was
the light of men.
5 And the light is shining in the darkness, but the darkness has not overpowered
it. (John 1)
could be the identification from scripture of the two different kinds of darkness: Heaven v Hell and Dark Energy v Dark Matter.
I have high-lighted in red the interesting phrase ‘outer darkness’. What might this mean? Well in cosmological
terms each galaxy seems to have its own tightly bounded dark matter (symbolising a spiritual galactic prison?). Each galaxy
is currently flying away from its neighbours at an increasing rate. So each galaxy is, in effect, flying away towards the
edge of the universe. If dark energy effectively fills the gaps in space between the galaxies we will end up with a universe
consisting of dark energy only with, perhaps, the Milky Way (Earth’s home galaxy) at its centre with the remaining galaxies,
complete with their dark matter content, on the outside edge of that dark energy. This seems to be symbolising a central heavenly
universe with its spiritual prisons on the periphery. Another scripture painting a similar fate for the demons and sinful
mankind is to be found in Jude:
13 Raging waves of the sea, foaming out their own shame; wandering stars, to whom is reserved the blackness
of darkness indefinitely. (Jude)
The dark matter
in this scenario would very much represent an outer darkness with the following scripture representing God at the centre of
the universe with his people round about him:
11 And I will set my tabernacle among you: and my soul shall not abhor you.
12 And I will walk among you, and will be your God, and ye shall be my people. (Leviticus 26)
We are currently in an accelerating and expanding universe. As angels and
men are eventually repatriated to their proper home in heaven during and after God’s Kingdom will the balance reverse
and the repulsive effects of dark energy reduce as it becomes filled with more spiritual beings. This effect could return
us to a decelerating universe that would start to bring the stars back together again in harmony and balance (more on this
later)? Does the repulsion between the galaxies caused by dark energy prefigure righteousness and love through the freedom
that God wants all his children to have? Similarly does the attraction between close heavenly bodies prefigure evil through
the restriction of such freedom? Perhaps as Tartarus/Gehenna eventually empties itself of contrite spiritual beings the attractive
force associated with dark matter will be reduced with the effect of unravelling the galactic structures in the universe?
This would provide a more evenly and perhaps stable spread of physical matter throughout the universe compared with today’s
large-scale galactic structures. All this represents the writer’s fanciful musings. However the bible certainly predicts
that the Great Day of God will shake the heavens as well as the earth, so we shouldn’t be surprised at a significant
change affecting the whole of the cosmos:
13 Therefore I will shake the heavens, and the earth shall remove out of her place,
in the wrath of the LORD of hosts, and in the day of his fierce anger. (Isaiah 13)
Furthermore in the lead up to the great day of Jehovah perhaps these musings
from a Lords’ Witness will take on more prophetic significance:
17 And it shall come to pass in the last days,
saith God, I will pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh: and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, and your young men
shall see visions, and your old men shall dream dreams:
18 And on my servants and on my
handmaidens I will pour out in those days of my Spirit; and they shall prophesy:
I will show wonders in heaven above, and signs in the earth beneath; blood, and fire, and vapor of smoke:
The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before that great and notable day of the Lord come: (Acts
25 And there shall be signs in
the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars; and upon the earth distress of nations, with perplexity; the sea and the waves
26 Men's hearts failing them for fear, and for looking after those things which
are coming on the earth: for the powers of heaven shall be shaken.
27 And then shall they
see the Son of man coming in a cloud with power and great glory. (Luke 21)
|Transfiguration of Christ
Interactions Between the Heavenly and Earthly
There are several scriptural
examples of heavenly spirits interacting with physical man. The two most graphic examples being when Moses was with God on
Mount Sinai and the transfiguration of Jesus:
22 And it shall come to pass, while my glory passeth by, that I will put thee in a cleft
of the rock, and will cover thee with my hand while I pass by:
23 And I will take away mine
hand, and thou shalt see my back parts: but my face shall not be seen. (Exodus 33)
29 And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two tables
of testimony in Moses' hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses knew not that the skin of his face shone while
he talked with him.
30 And when Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses, behold,
the skin of his face shone; and they were afraid to come nigh him. (Exodus 34)
1 And after six days Jesus taketh Peter,
James, and John his brother, and bringeth them up into a high mountain apart,
And was transfigured before them: and his face did shine as the sun, and his raiment was white as the light.
And, behold, there appeared unto them Moses and Elijah talking with him. (Matthew 17)
In both cases fleshly man was affected by having his face start to shine.
The former was clearly caused by Moses direct interaction with God’s appearance to him. With Jesus it is a little less
clear to the writer but he was seen in conversation with Moses and Elijah. Interestingly the latter case suggests that both
Moses and Elijah were alive and well in heaven, rather than resting in death, given the manner of their departures from the
physical realm in that they were both taken by God from this world into the next:
5 So Moses the servant of the LORD died there in the
land of Moab, according to the word of the LORD.
6 And he buried him in a valley in
the land of Moab, over against Beth-peor: but no man knoweth of his sepulcher unto this day. (Deuteronomy 34)
11 And it came to pass, as they still went
on, and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, and parted them both asunder; and Elijah
went up by a whirlwind into heaven. (2Kings 2)
So it would appear that the dark heavenly forces not only have gravitational effects upon this physical universe
but also can provide some form of energy which makes men’s faces physically light up. It would also appear that the
dark realms have no need for light as we understand it (perhaps this is why God needed to create it just for us) since heavenly
spirits have their own light. A light those who are saved ultimately will also have:
23 And the city had
no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it: for the glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is the light thereof.
5 And there shall be no
night there; and they need no candle, neither light of the sun; for the Lord God giveth them light: and they shall reign forever
and ever. (Revelation 22)
it would appear from the above scriptures that spirit creatures can depart their heavenly realms to enter the physical realm.
There are many other less dramatic examples in scripture of angels visiting man in his world to carry out the work of our
Lord on Earth:
1 And there came two angels to Sodom at even; and Lot sat in the gate of Sodom: and Lot seeing
them rose up to meet them; and he bowed himself with his face toward the ground; (Genesis 19)
1 And Jacob went on his way, and the angels of God met him.
For physical creations to enter the heavenly realms it seems as if this can only happen
through death which would appear to free the spirit from the body to make that transition possible. Another consideration
are the miracles that abound in both the Hebrew and Greek scriptures. How were they made possible if we accept that they were
performed outside of the limited physical laws of the known universe? At this point in the debate we need to consider if there
is an extra-universal implication here to further support our thinking thus far and literally add a further dimension (or
7 as it turns out!) to our argument. More science, I am afraid, is necessary since we now need to consider another leading
edge theory of the cosmos by looking at the implications of M-Theory,
the Theory formerly known as String Theory or the Theory of Everything.
|The Standard Model
|Image: European Nuclear Society
The Standard Model
String theory is mankind’s most recent attempt to answer the fundamental
questions of ‘How did the universe come into existence and what is it made of?’
Our current knowledge tells us that ordinary (baryonic) matter is made of atoms, which are in turn made of just three
basic components: electrons whirling around a nucleus composed of neutrons and protons. The subatomic composition of the universe
is summarized in what is known as the Standard Model of particle physics. It describes both the fundamental building blocks
out of which matter is constructed, and the forces through which these blocks interact.
There are four fundamental forces in the universe: gravity, electromagnetism, and the weak and strong nuclear forces.
Each of these is produced by fundamental particles that act as carriers of the force. The most familiar of these is the photon,
a particle of light, which is the mediator of electromagnetic forces. (This means that, for instance, a magnet attracts a
nail because both objects exchange photons.) The graviton is the particle associated with gravity.
The behaviour of all of these particles and forces is described with impeccable
precision by the Standard Model, with one notable exception: gravity. For technical reasons, the gravitational force, the
most familiar in our every day lives, has proven very difficult to describe microscopically. This has been for many years
one of the most important problems in theoretical physics-- to formulate a quantum theory of gravity.
For the uninitiated
reader the following web-site is a pretty good introduction to the Standard Model: http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A666173
|Image: NASA/ ESA/ STScI/ AURA (The Hubble Heritage Team)
Introduction to M or String Theory
In the last few decades, string theory has emerged as
the most promising candidate for a microscopic theory of gravity. It is, however, infinitely more ambitious than that: it
attempts to provide a complete, unified, and consistent description of the fundamental structure of our universe. (For this
reason it is sometimes, quite arrogantly, called a 'Theory of Everything').
The essential idea behind string theory is this: all of the different 'fundamental
' particles of the Standard Model are really just different manifestations of one basic object: a string. These strings
can be closed, like loops, or open, like a hair. As the string moves through time it traces out a tube or a sheet, according
to whether it is closed or open. Furthermore, the string is free to vibrate, and different vibrational modes of the string
represent the different particle types. One mode of vibration, or `note', makes the string appear as an electron, another
as a photon. There is even a mode describing the graviton, the particle carrying the force of gravity, which is an important
reason why String Theory has received so much attention. The point is that we can make sense of the interaction of two gravitons
in String theory in a way we could not in Quantum Field Theory. So, the first great achievement of String Theory was to give
a consistent theory of quantum gravity.
of the most remarkable predictions of String Theory is that space-time has ten dimensions! At first sight, this may be seen
as a reason to dismiss the theory altogether, as we obviously have only three dimensions of space and one of time in our observable
universe. However, if we assume that six of these dimensions are curled up very tightly, then we may never be aware of their
existence. Furthermore, having these so-called compact dimensions are very beneficial if String Theory is to describe a Theory
of Everything. The idea is that degrees of freedom like the electric charge of an electron will then arise simply as motion
in the extra compact directions!
is a development from String Theory which lives not in 10 but in 11 dimensions. This seems to be telling us that M-theory
should be viewed as an 11 dimensional theory that looks 10 dimensional at some points in its space of parameters. Rather than
being tiny and restrictive, the 11th dimension allows a string to be able to expand. An expanded string is known as a 'brane'
(short for membrane). How do we visualise a brane? It turns out that this depends on how much energy the string has. Mathematics
has shown that the more energy you give a string in the 11th dimension, the larger the brane can become – give it enough
energy and it could be the size of the Universe. This begs the question that perhaps the Universe is a brane – are we
all living on the skin of a brane? Thinking about this, there is another logical question to ask – are there other branes?
This is a startling prospect since another brane is in fact another Universe. Perhaps there is a brane right next to the one
we call our Universe, another brane paralleling our brane – a parallel Universe! The laws of physics and the forces
that act within any particular brane are considered to be a manifestation of the strings that are attached to that brane.
And different branes may well have different strings and hence different laws of physics.
Whilst we cannot truly envisage what a 11-dimensional universe could really be
like, we should not sell our God short by suggesting that such a thing is impossible for him. So is this really such an unbelievable
or surprising concept? The more one thinks about this the more it seems highly probable that this could rightly describe the
heavens and environment in which God and his spirit family live, an existence well beyond man’s current understanding.
Perhaps the most remarkable thing about string theory is that such
a simple idea works; it is possible to derive the Standard Model from a theory of strings. But it should also be said that,
to date, there is no direct experimental evidence that string theory itself is the correct description of Nature. This is
mostly due to the fact that string theory is still under development. It is also fair to say that whilst string theory has
its detractors in the scientific community; it does appear to be the only theory of everything under serious consideration
right now and does lead us to some interesting perspectives in trying to align the physical with the spiritual.
following links cover this introductory scientific material and much more:
Now what has String or M-Theory got to do with Dark Matter or Dark Energy?
As described above, the strings of String Theory
can be ‘open’ or ‘closed’. According to String Theory, the particles which transmit the strong nuclear,
weak nuclear and electromagnetic forces, are all open strings. Open strings stay in our universe, since they have open ends
which attach to our universe. But, according to String Theory, the graviton (the particle which transmits gravity) consists
of closed loops. This allows gravitons to wander to or from our universe to another. If such a theory is correct, gravity
may be the only way we could communicate with other parallel universes, since it is the only force that is common to all universes
In this context,
Dark Matter could actually be matter in other parallel universes (see the above section re Branes) but having gravitational
effects in our universe. The concept of Parallel Universes is an idea which suggests that there exists other universes which
we cannot see because they lie in another dimension, another direction. Consider a sheet of paper as a two-dimensional representation
of our universe. Then we would be two-dimensional creatures and only able to see in two dimensions and not up. Then if there
were other paper sheets stacked
upon each other we could not see them, even though they were very close, since we would
not be able to see up. It is a similar idea with parallel universes albeit difficult to visualise without the simple example
So Dark Matter could
be matter existing in another universe; this starts to explain why Dark Matter exists in the halos around galaxies. Gravity
is an attractive force, which means that gravity pulls matter closer together. So two galaxies in two different universes
should actually align. This would explain why the gravitational pull around our galaxies is greater than would be purely explained
by the mass in our universe. The gravitons would be interacting between the two universes. This matches the observable facts
that we cannot see Dark Matter itself but we can detect its gravitational effects. Thus we could be seeing the gravitational
effects in our physical universe of the galaxies in a juxtaposed spirit universe. This, therefore, could represent Tartarus
and/or Gehenna as galactic entities in a parallel spirit universe.
OK, so by this logic Dark Matter is a phenomenon in our physical universe of the gravitational effect caused
by Gehenna/Tartarus in another (spiritual) universe or brane. So where does that leave Dark Energy? The answer could lie in
the theories of Paul J. Steinhardt, of the Department of Physics Princeton University, related to his ideas of a ‘cyclic’
model of the Universe. This presents a whole new outlook on cosmic history in which dark energy plays a central role. In this
model, the big bang is not the beginning of time. Rather, it is a bridge to a pre-existing contracting era. The Universe undergoes
a sequence of cycles in which it contracts in a big crunch and re-emerges in an expanding big bang, with trillions of years
of universal evolution in between. In this picture, dark energy is moved to centre stage and is part of the engine that drives
this cyclic process.
The cyclic model
is motivated by recent developments in string theory, especially the ideas of branes and extra dimensions. In this picture,
our three-dimensional universe may be a brane embedded in a space with one or more extra-dimensions. In M-theory, for example,
this brane constitutes one of the boundaries of the extra dimension, and another brane lies at the other boundary. The cyclic
model proposes that the two branes interact with one another through gravity resulting in a weak force that causes the branes
to be drawn together and collide at regular intervals. Each collision causes the branes to bounce back to their original positions
and creates matter and radiation whose gravitation causes the branes to begin to stretch. This represents the (not so big)
bang and the subsequent expansion and cooling. The expansion continues at a decelerating rate until, after 15 billion years,
the matter and radiation density are so thinly spread that it becomes negligible compared to the potential energy of the inter-brane
force. This potential is hypothesised as the dark energy that drives the period of accelerated expansion that has recently
been observed. The branes stretch at an accelerating rate, thinning the matter density to a near vacuum and flattening any
curvature and warps in the branes. Eventually, the weak force draws the branes together, reducing the dark energy and naturally
ending the accelerated expansion. The “contraction” that ensues is the contraction of the extra dimension. Our
three-dimensions (the branes) remain stretched out and the temperature and density remain nearly zero until the branes collide.
And the cycle starts again.
does this tell us? This theory relates two branes with an interbrane force between them. So if the Physical Universe and
Dark Matter represent these two branes could Dark Energy represent the interbrane energy field? If so this introduces the
interesting concept that
Heaven represents the free energy/force which controls the interactions of the two more limited
matter entities of the Physical Universe and Tartarus/Gehenna. More limited that is in dimensions or degrees of freedom. It
also suggests that there are not necessarily innumerable parallel universes but only three; the physical universe of baryonic
matter that is man’s domain, the spiritual dark matter universe of Tartarus/Gehenna that is the demons’ domain
and the dark energy of heaven, God’s domain. Whilst only a theory, the cyclic model does come from a very well respected
scientist in his field and, apart from addressing the flaws in the Big Bang theory whilst matching the observable measurements
of these strange phenomena, it also interestingly appears to match perfectly the three estates of God’s creation.
How well is this concept supported in scripture. Well let us take a look
at Genesis 1:
6 And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from
7 And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament
from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.
8 And God called the firmament
Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day. (Genesis 1)
Arguably this could match the
cyclic model of Steinhardt in which Genesis has a Word Symbolic meaning in which the two waters represent the Physical Universe
and Tartarus/Gehenna separated by the Heavenly Firmament. This model and its correspondence with these verses from Genesis
would support how both the cosmic mysteries of Dark Matter and Dark Energy interact with our world and, indeed, with each
other and puts them both into a context of theoretical physics and God’s word.
In this context let us revisit Genesis 1:2:
2 And the earth was without
form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the
deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.
This seems to
further support the current interpretation in that God’s heavenly spirit existed, at least at the time of the creation,
over the surface of the waters (the surface of the spiritual and physical branes) and therefore within the heavenly space/energy
between the two.
For a fuller text
of Steinhardt’s work please check out the following link:
There are numerous other related web-sites on the
same theme of a cyclic model of the universe (which, as we suggest earlier, removes the difficult elements of the Big Bang
theory) one of which can be found at:
So we seem to be developing the understanding of a scheme
in which mankind and the demons are ‘trapped’ in limited universes of matter, albeit of no doubt very different
physical properties, whereas God and his Holy family are free to extend themselves throughout the intervening ‘space’
of dark energy. Is it so surprising that the Holy Ones should be more likened to energy rather than beings made of matter
since even mankind’s poor understandings of his universe would likely place the spirit world closer in nature to energy
rather than physical matter. We should not lose sight of the known inter-changeability between matter and energy as epitomised
in Einstein’s most famous of equations e = mc2. Most noteworthy is that the speed of light features so significantly
in this inter-changeability. The implications, for instance of the Munrose Hypothesis in this, could be significant. This
becomes even more evident from scripture when we consider the section above regarding the ‘Interactions Between the
Heavenly and Earthly Realms’ and references to people’s faces shining as a result of exposure to the heavenly
‘radiation’. Again this seems to be God telling us a little more about his own very nature and reminding us of
our current limited capability.
compares the light–giving qualities of the sun (the most explicit example we know of the transformation between matter
and energy) to be equated to the Holy Ones of a purely spiritual nature and the moon (a purely physical entity) which nonetheless
has the ability to reflect the sun’s light energy. A comparison between the estates of Michael and Satan or those of
God’s own realm and those of the physical universes perhaps:
26 If I beheld the sun when it shined, or the moon walking in brightness; (Job 31)
1 And there appeared a great wonder in heaven;
a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars: (Revelation 12)
One day, however, even the light-giving properties of the sun will be replaced
by the greater light of our Lord, this further emphasising the energy nature of God:
19 The sun shall be no
more thy light by day; neither for brightness shall the moon give light unto thee: but the LORD shall be unto thee an everlasting
light, and thy God thy glory. (Isaiah 60)
23 And the city had no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it: for
the glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is the light thereof. (Revelation 21)
|Image: ESA/AOES Medialab
Transitions Between the Three Estates of God’s
As touched on in an earlier section
above, another effect of the cyclic model of the universe is that there will come a time when the outer bounds of darkness
will start contracting back towards the centre of creation. This presumably being associated with the freeing of spirits from
the Tartarus/Gehenna ‘brane’ back out into heaven or into the less restrictive ‘brane’ of the physical
universe. Despite our understanding that Tartarus/Gehenna is a prison for disembodied spirits, the concept that Tartarus/Gehenna
is more like the physical universe than Heaven is perfectly consistent with this. We have already seen that heavenly spirits
can freely traverse the divide between Heaven and the physical universe. Presumably they can also make that transition from
Heaven to Tartarus/Gehenna. Man’s spirit can only make that transition after his disembodiment after death. This mechanism
would presumably allow demonic spirits to make that transition from Tartarus/Gehenna to Heaven so there must be some kind
of different physical property in Tartarus/Gehenna to inhibit such transitions or perhaps it is purely the power of the Holy
Spirit which keeps the demonic spirits in their place until such time as they are released by their Heavenly jailers?
Now one question that may rightly arise in the mind of the reader in this
overall context is ‘How did demonic possessions work in New Testament times?’ Let us consider firstly a couple
of examples of possession from the scriptures including that most infamous and graphic example:
8 For he said unto him, Come
out of the man, thou unclean spirit.
9 And he asked him, What is thy name? And he answered,
saying, My name is Legion: for we are many.
10 And he besought him much that he would not
send them away out of the country.
11 Now there was there nigh unto the mountains a great
herd of swine feeding.
12 And all the devils besought him, saying, Send us into the swine,
that we may enter into them.
13 And forthwith Jesus gave them leave. And the unclean spirits
went out, and entered into the swine: and the herd ran violently down a steep place into the sea, (they were about two thousand;)
and were choked in the sea. (Mark 5)
32 As they went out, behold,
they brought to him a dumb man possessed with a devil.
33 And when the devil was cast out,
the dumb spake: and the multitudes marvelled, saying, It was never so seen in Israel. (Matthew 9)
Several points are clear from this. Firstly demonic spirits were allowed
out of Tartarus in those times, presumably under some kind of controlled parole. Secondly Jesus appeared to have complete
control over the demonic spirits. He was able to cast them out or transfer them between different physical subjects. Thirdly
in the first example it can only be presumed that the Legion of spirits deliberately committed suicide inside the herd of
swine since they decided that they preferred to be imprisoned in Tartarus rather than inside the body of a pig! So it appears
that both a direct casting out or the death of the physical subject of the possession would have had the same effect of the
liberation of the evil spirit from the corporeal subject and its transfer back to Tartarus. So it would appear that both the
ability for demons to cross the spiritual-earthly border and the power of Jesus to forcibly return them from whence they came
were effected in those times. Perhaps this was enabled as a sign for Christians at the time to renew their faith in Jehovah.
Let us examine the scriptures a little further:
28 But if I cast out devils by
the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God is come unto you. (Matthew 12)
14 And he ordained twelve, that they should be with him, and that he might send
them forth to preach,
15 And to have power to heal sicknesses, and to cast out devils: (Mark
38 And John answered him,
saying, Master, we saw one casting out devils in thy name, and he followeth not us: and we forbade him, because he followeth
39 But Jesus said, Forbid him not: for there is no man which shall do a miracle
in my name, that can lightly speak evil of me. (Mark 9)
These scriptures represent the power to exorcise demonic spirits to be not only within the power of Christ but stemming
from the Holy Spirit and then being endowed upon the apostles and the 1NC Saints. They also present the ability to heal sickness
and generally perform miracles from the same source. So it would appear that these persons therefore are the keepers of the
keys to heaven which are required for entry from Tartarus or the earth. The miracle and gate-keeping abilities of the Holy
Spirit are both in keeping with the three estate model we have built up. The heavenly realm acts as the ‘buffer zone’
between the two physical states of earth and Tartarus and the multibrane multidimensional reality which is hidden from us
today enables spiritual beings to perform quite naturally what appear to be miracles in our limited earthly view. There
are numerous other scriptures which continue in this vein of gate-keeping and miracle working:
19 But the angel of the Lord
by night opened the prison doors, and brought them forth, and said, (Acts 5)
7 And, behold, the angel of the Lord came upon him, and a light shined in the prison:
and he smote Peter on the side, and raised him up, saying, Arise up quickly. And his chains fell off from his hands.
8 And the angel said unto him, Gird thyself, and bind on thy sandals. And so he did. And he saith unto
him, Cast thy garment about thee, and follow me.
9 And he went out, and followed him; and
wist not that it was true which was done by the angel; but thought he saw a vision.
they were past the first and the second ward, they came unto the iron gate that leadeth unto the city; which opened to them
of his own accord: and they went out, and passed on through one street; and forthwith the angel departed from him. (Acts 12)
25 And at midnight Paul and Silas prayed, and
sang praises unto God: and the prisoners heard them.
26 And suddenly there was a great
earthquake, so that the foundations of the prison were shaken: and immediately all the doors were opened, and every one's
bands were loosed. (Acts 16)
God’s Holy Spirit helpers are clearly able to open the prisons of the earth. Why would we not believe the similar
capability resides in the spiritual realms?
19 And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever
thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. (Matthew
18 I am he that liveth,
and was dead; and, behold, I am alive forevermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death. (Revelation 1)
7 And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia
write; These things saith he that is holy, he that is true, he that hath the key of David, he that openeth, and no man shutteth;
and shutteth, and no man openeth; (Revelation 3)
1 And the fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth:
and to him was given the key of the bottomless pit.
2 And he opened the bottomless pit;
and there arose a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace; and the sun and the air were darkened by reason of
the smoke of the pit. (Revelation 9)
1 And I saw an angel come down from heaven, having the key of the bottomless pit and a great
chain in his hand.
2 And he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil,
and Satan, and bound him a thousand years,
3 And cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut
him up, and set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years should be fulfilled:
and after that he must be loosed a little season. (Revelation 9)
7 And when the thousand years are expired, Satan shall be loosed out of his prison,
not Luke 16 perfectly describe the barrier between Gehenna and Heaven as a ‘great gulf fixed’?
22 And it came to pass,
that the beggar died, and was carried by the angels into Abraham's bosom: the rich man also died, and was buried;
23 And in hell he lifted up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus
in his bosom.
24 And he cried and said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus,
that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame.
But Abraham said, Son, remember that thou in thy lifetime receivedst thy good things, and likewise Lazarus evil things: but
now he is comforted, and thou art tormented.
26 And beside all this, between us and you
there is a great gulf fixed: so that they which would pass from hence to you cannot; neither can they pass to us, that would
come from thence. (Luke 16)
What Wonders Await?
Doesn’t the description of dark energy sound a little like our literal
scriptural knowledge of heaven? We cannot see it, it is hidden from us but we can see its effects. The wonder of all this
is that if the concepts described in this paper are correct then the glory of heaven is all around us and very close to us
but unseen by us. We are actually living slap bang in the middle of it and we don’t know it. Doesn’t that strike
a chord? Perhaps it is no coincidence that ‘darkness’ is described in scripture whilst the word ‘dark’
is used by today’s scientists to describe cosmological phenomena of which mankind is now conscious but which remain
tantalisingly just beyond our current understanding of the cosmos?
Is it not fitting therefore that the reality behind the two greatest mysteries of the cosmos that mankind
has ever faced are likely to be revealed to us by our all-powerful God on the eve of his Day? Those mysteries being intimately
linked to the nature of his whole creation as revealed in scripture. In that context let us also remember that our physical
universe, as wonderful and expansive as it is, still only represents a tiny proportion of God’s creation as measured
by gravitational effect. That God wants to declare his intent to mankind now through the Lords’ Witnesses at this time
is surely another sign to demonstrate to his earthly children that we are his true church in these final days of Satan’s
kingdom on earth. What a wonderful prospect that we will be privileged to be in attendance when God reveals his full creation
to righteous mankind in our generation. The writer can hardly wait!
|CMS Higgs Event Simulation
|Image: Courtesy CERN
The Compact Muon Solenoid
‘The what’ do I hear you say? Yes you got it right
the first time ‘The Compact Muon Solenoid’ or CMS for short. The trouble with all the foregoing material is that
it is entirely based on theoretical physics; none of it has been capable of having been proven by scientific experiment to
date. The strength of any good scientific theory is in its ability to be substantiated by practical experimentation; this
is the only way that good science progresses. The CMS will provide the experimental evidence that the above theories are correct
or not and/or may help to uncover further secrets of God’s wonderful creation.
So what is the CMS? Well it is a gigantic general-purpose particle detector
which in 2008 has been planned to play centre stage for the largest physics experiment ever conducted on Earth.
That really is quite a claim but one that is wholly justified.
This experiment will be investigating physical processes at the energy level of tera-electron-Volts (TeV)—where
one tera-electron-Volt equals one trillion (10**12) electron-Volts (eV), and one eV equals one volt times the charge (in coulombs)
of a single electron. Trust me this is a seriously big number and represents enormous experimental power compared with any
previous similar measurements.
September 2008, the proton-proton Large Hadron Collider (LHC) particle accelerator of Geneva, Switzerland’s CERN
(European Organization for Nuclear Research)—the world’s largest particle physics laboratory—was switched
on for testing. At that time, it began to accelerate beams of particles around a 27-kilometer (16.8-mile circumference),
21-meter (68.9-foot length), 16-meter (52.5-foot diameter), and 12,500-ton (weight) cylindrical underground chamber to energies
never before generated on the Earth. The particles will then collide with each other as they pass through the CMS particle
detector. While within the CMS, the energy and momentum of electrons, photons, muons, and other particles produced by the
collisions will be measured.
LHC was expected to become the world's largest and highest energy particle accelerator in 2008, when commissioning at
7 TeV was due to be completed. However some serious problems in the latter stages of the testing related to the
cooling of the large magnets required to move the protons around the circular tunnel have ended with main operations being
delayed until Autumn 2009. For a scientist such as myself I find this very disappointing but it has caused me to
wonder whether God considers the LHC as a latter day Tower of Babel and so has ensured that mankind's natural imperfections
have had their effect. However, the timing of this peak of performance in the run up to Armageddon, together with the energy
level operating at God’s favourite number of TeV, may still be no coincidence. Will God allow us to reveal the secrets
of his creation at the very time that humankind manifestly starts destroying itself? A delicious sense of irony don’t
At this extremely
large energy level, the scientists will study collisions of protons which scientists are hoping will be able to answer some
of nature’s most fundamental questions. Amongst others some of the goals of these scientists are:
- to discover previously unknown particles (such as the Higgs boson –
more on this shortly)
- find evidence of super-symmetry
(more on this shortly too!)
- explain the
origin of mass
- find extra dimensions of
- check out the characteristics of dark
If such things can be realized,
it may dramatically help scientists further explain a unified theory of all physical phenomena, what is sometimes called The
Theory of Everything. All this sounds uncannily familiar does it not?
With the much-awaited results of the CMS experiment, 2009 should be an exiting year of discovery for physics.
For more information, the Web home page of CMS is:
As indicated above, one of the particles that scientists
are hoping to detect is the Higgs Boson, a particle which has been theorised but never actually recorded. Scientists believe
the Higgs Boson is the particle that gives the property of mass to other particles such as electrons. If they can prove that
it exists then they will have taken a big step towards a much fuller understanding of how the universe works, and indeed,
what happened in the instants immediately after it was formed.
Physicists have observed 16 particles that make up all matter under the Standard Model of fundamental
particles and their interactions. However the sums do not quite add up for the Standard Model to be true if these particles
are considered alone. If only 16 particles existed, they would have no mass - contradicting what we know to be true in nature.
Another particle, not yet experimentally confirmed, has to give them this mass. Enter the Higgs boson, first proposed by University
of Edinburgh physicist Peter Higgs and colleagues in the late 1960s. Their theory was that all particles acquire their mass
through interactions with an all-pervading field, called the Higgs field, which is carried by the Higgs Boson.
The Higgs' importance to the Standard Model led Nobel Prize-winning
physicist Leon Lederman to dub it the "God particle". Not to put too fine a point on it, the Higgs is the cornerstone
of 21st-century physics; it simply has to be there, otherwise the standard model of the universe collapses. Interesting that
a scientist recognises the key to unlocking the universe as we know it was put there by our creator don’t you think?
One of the predictions of string theory is that at higher energy scales
we should start to see evidence of a symmetry that gives every particle that transmits a force (a boson) a partner particle
that makes up matter (a fermion), and vice versa. This symmetry between forces and matter is called supersymmetry. The partner
particles are called superpartners. In particle experiments to date there has not yet been any direct evidence for the existence
of superpartners for known elementary particles (although there is some indirect evidence). If they exist there is a good
chance we could start to see superpartners in future LHC particle experiments. If that happened, it could turn out to be experimental
evidence for string theory. This again shows the importance of the upcoming CERN experiments to our ‘Dark’ proposition.
So it would appear that God is allowing mankind to discover the true nature of
our existence once our science is up to the job. This will coincide with our Lord's coming at the appointed time
which gives further evidence that we are in the end times:
5 Therefore judge nothing before the time, until the Lord come, who
both will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and will make manifest the counsels of the hearts: and then shall
every man have praise of God. (1Corinthians 4)
|God and Science
God and Science
It would appear that the Lords’ Witnesses are not the only ones to
have spotted this linkage between scripture and the final cosmological frontier. I quote from another author on the internet:
‘Recent discoveries in theoretical
physics and cosmology have profound implications for the existence of God. Theoretical physicists provided strong evidence
for the existence of a higher dimensional world which could be the "spirit world" where God and angels dwell. Cosmologists
discovered a large amount of invisible matter (dark energy and cold dark matter) whose properties are entirely different from
ordinary matter. Are they made up of "spirit particles"?’
This tantalising question, together with some proposed answers may be found written by Frank Lee at the following
Bible references throughout this Understanding have been taken from the King James Version except where there are significant
deviations from the precise meaning of the original Greek or Hebrew texts in which cases the New World or Young's Translation
has been used as appropriate.